Table 1

Comparison of cases ofpneumonia and their matchedcontrols
Cases Controls*
Number 1,835 16,088
Age at index date (years; mean ± sd) 79.2 ± 8.0 78.6 ± 7.8
Male sex (%) 1,137 (62.0) 10,000 (62.0)
New-user at cohort entry (%) 1,053 (57.4) 9,251 (57.4)
Disease duration at cohort entry among prevalent users (yrs; mean ± sd) 3.1 ± 2.9 3.1 ± 2.9
Indication for treatment (%)
 Parkinson's disease 1,114 (60.7) 10,758 (60.7)
 Parkinsonian syndrome 127 (6.9) 649 (6.9)
 Restless leg syndrome 85 (4.6) 644 (4.6)
 Hyperprolactinemia/acromegaly 21 (1.1) 73 (1.1)
 Not mentioned 488 (26.6) 3,964 (26.6)
Body mass index ≥ 30 (%)† 211 (16.4) 1,624 (14.0)
Ever smoking (%)† 685 (45.7) 5,300 (39.7)
Alcohol abuse (%) 104 (5.7) 701 (4.4)
Co-morbidity prior to cohortentry (%)
 Cerebrovascular disease 339 (18.5) 2,109 (13.0)
 Ischemic heart disease 419 (22.8) 3,462 (21.1)
 Hypertension 622 (33.9) 5408 (33.4)
 Heart Failure 175 (9.5) 880 (5.2)
 Diabetes 172 (9.4) 1031 (6.5)
 Rhythm irregularity 224 (12.2) 1652 (10.1)
 Cardiac valve condition 22 (1.2) 162 (1.0)
 Peripheral edema 428 (23.3) 3109 (19.0)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 315 (17.2) 2023 (12.4)
 Asthma 205 (11.2) 1447 (9.0)
 History of prior Pneumonia 127 (6.9) 564 (3.6)
 Lung Cancer 4 (0.2) 25 (0.1)
 Other Cancer 305 (16.6) 2251 (14.0)
 Depression 265 (14.4) 2071 (12.7)
 Anemia 208 (11.3) 1483 (9.4)
 Renal Failure 84 (4.6) 473 (2.8)
 Dementia 153 (8.3) 918 (5.5)
 Motor Neuron Disease 1 (0.1) 11 (0.1)
Medication use in yearprior to index date(%)
 Diuretics 828 (45.1) 5911 (36.6)
 ACE- inhibitors 383 (20.9) 3084 (18.9)
 Angiotensin receptor blocker 96 (5.2) 845 (5.2)
 Proton-pump inhibitors 563 (30.7) 3566 (22.6)
 NSAIDS 357 (19.5) 3093 (19.5)
 Oral corticosteroids 247 (13.5) 962 (6.2)
 Inhaled corticosteroids 243 (13.2) 1331 (8.4)
 Other respiratory medications 372 (20.3) 1844 (11.8)
 Antibiotics‡ 1083 (59.0) 6363 (39.7)
 Antidepressants 547 (29.8) 3731 (23.1)
 Benzodiazepines/Anxiolytics 423 (23.1) 2681 (17.2)
 Antipsychotics 286 (15.6) 1694 (10.7)
 Antiepileptics 198 (10.8) 1084 (7.0)
 Opiates 628 (34.2) 4299 (26.9)
 Barbiturates 0 (0.0) 6 (0.0)
 Mood Stabilizers 14 (0.8) 134 (0.8)
 Immunosuppressants 5 (0.3) 28 (0.2)
 Influenza vaccination prior to index date 1529 (83.3) 13335 (82.8)

* Percentages weighted by the inverse of the number of controls per cases.

† Percentages among subjects with no missing data in these variables.

‡Excluding the 2 weeks prior to the index date.

Ernst et al.

Ernst et al. BMC Neurology 2012 12:113   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-113

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