Table 1

Evidences of impaired neuroregeneration in AD and PD

Neurorestorative field

Evidence of impairment

Evidence of compensatory mechanism


Neurogenesis

AD

Decreased number of NPCs and altered division rates [21]

Increased neuroproliferation markers [16]


PD

Reduced number of NPCs [28]

Increased number of PSA-NCAM + cells [29]


Neuroprotection

AD

Low BDNF mRNA and protein levels [37]

Upregulation of glial truncated TrkB [40]

Controversed data on NGF levels [40,48,49]

Possibly upregulation of NGF with ageing and dementia [61,62,87]

Aβ stimulates NGF astrocytic secrection [51]

High GDNF levels in cerebrospinal fluid


PD

Low BDNF mRNA and protein levels [37]

BDNF pretreatment protects dopaminergic neurons [34]

Low GDNF protein levels [66]


Neuroplasticity

AD

Synaptic loss [77]

"Dynamic synaptic reorganization" [82].

LTP impairment by Abeta oligomers and inflammatory environment [85]

NCAM increase in dentate gyrus [83]


PD

Loss of dendritic spines following loss of dopaminergic input [90]

Impaired synaptic plasticity in several models of PD [87-89]


Enciu et al. BMC Neurology 2011 11:75   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-11-75

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