Table 3

Presence and severity of CCSVI in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls.

MS

(n = 59)

HC

(n = 33)

p

RR

(n = 41)

SP

(n = 18)

p


No CCSVI, n (%)

12 (21.3)

27 (81.8)

< .0001

11 (26.8)

1 (5.6)

NS

CCSVI, n (%)

47 (79.7)

6 (18.2)

30 (73.2)

17 (94.4)


VHISS, mean (SD)

4.9 (3.1)

1.5 (1.6)

< .0001

5.2 (3.6)

4.2 (1.4)

NS


CCSVI - chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency; VHISS - venous hemodynamic insufficiency score; MS - Multiple Sclerosis; HC - Healthy Controls; RR - Relapsing-Remitting; SP - Secondary Progressive; NS - non significant

The differences between the study groups were tested using Fisher's exact tests and the Mann-Whitney rank sum test. All subjects had the 5 venous hemodynamic criteria correctly assessed.

Zivadinov et al. BMC Neurology 2011 11:128   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-11-128

Open Data