Table 4

ORs for Parkinson's disease in relation to alcohol drinking during "peak" period by flushing status

Alcohol drinking during "peak" period a

n (%)

Crude OR

(95% CI)

Adjusted ORb

(95% CI)

Adjusted ORc

(95% CI)


Never flushing

Cases

(N = 107)

Controls

(N = 166)

Frequency

Non-drinker

79 (73.8)

127 (76.5)

1.00

1.00

1.00

< 6 days per week

23 (21.5)

24 (14.5)

1.54 (0.81-2.92)

1.65 (0.80-3.44)

1.32 (0.60-2.93)

≥ 6 days per week

5 (4.7)

15 (9.0)

0.54 (0.17-1.44)

0.78 (0.22-2.54)

0.61 (0.17-1.99)

P for trend

0.82

0.67

0.77

Amount per day (ethanol, g)

Non-drinker

79 (73.8)

127 (76.5)

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.1-65.9

17 (15.9)

21 (12.7)

1.30 (0.64-2.61)

1.33 (0.61-2.87)

1.07 (0.47-2.43)

≥ 66.0

11 (10.3)

18 (10.8)

0.98 (0.43-2.16)

1.54 (0.54-4.39)

1.11 (0.37-3.31)

P for trend

0.80

0.32

0.82

Amount per week (ethanol, g)

Non-drinker

79 (73.8)

127 (76.5)

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.1-219.3

19 (17.8)

23 (13.9)

1.33 (0.68-2.59)

1.46 (0.69-3.09)

1.18 (0.53-2.63)

≥ 219.4

9 (8.4)

16 (9.6)

0.90 (0.37-2.11)

1.24 (0.42-3.60)

0.89 (0.29-2.66)

P for trend

0.85

0.44

0.99

Former/current flushing

Cases

(N = 107)

Controls

(N = 161)

Frequency

Non-drinker

36 (33.6)

54 (33.5)

1.00

1.00

1.00

< 6 days per week

40 (37.4)

53 (32.9)

1.13 (0.63-2.04)

1.12 (0.56-2.26)

0.97 (0.47-2.02)

≥ 6 days per week

31 (29.0)

54 (33.5)

0.86 (0.47-1.59)

0.98 (0.43-2.26)

0.84 (0.35-2.00)

P for trend

0.64

0.96

0.68

Amount per day (ethanol, g)

Non-drinker

36 (33.6)

54 (33.5)

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.1-65.9

29 (27.1)

52 (32.3)

0.84 (0.45-1.55)

0.97 (0.48-1.97)

0.84 (0.40-1.77)

≥ 66.0

42 (39.3)

55 (34.2)

1.15 (0.64-2.06)

1.38 (0.61-3.17)

1.16 (0.49-2.74)

P for trend

0.63

0.44

0.71

Amount per week (ethanol, g)

Non-drinker

36 (33.6)

54 (33.5)

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.1-219.3

22 (20.6)

50 (31.1)

0.66 (0.34-1.26)

0.79 (0.38-1.64)

0.66 (0.30-1.43)

≥ 219.4

49 (45.8)

57 (35.4)

1.29 (0.73-2.29)

2.06 (0.88-4.96)

1.82 (0.75-4.53)

P for trend

0.33

0.13

0.23


OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

a Defined as period during which the subject's alcohol consumption was the highest.

b Adjusted for sex, age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, years of education, body mass index, and presence of medication history for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes.

c Adjusted for sex, age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, years of education, body mass index, presence of medication history for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes, dietary intake of caffeine, cholesterol, vitamin E, vitamin B6, iron, and dietary glycemic index.

Fukushima et al. BMC Neurology 2010 10:111   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-10-111

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