Table 1

Characteristics of the study population

Variable

n (%) or mean (SD)

P-value


Cases (N = 214)

Controls (N = 327)


Sex (%)

0.86

Male

73 (34.1)

114 (34.9)

Female

141 (65.9)

213 (65.1)

Age (y)

67.9 (8.5)

66.4 (8.6)

0.04

Region of residence (%)

0.43

Fukuoka

81 (37.9)

135 (41.3)

Kinki

133 (62.2)

192 (58.7)

Pack-years of smoking (%)

0.007

None

164 (76.6)

211 (64.5)

0.1-29.9

28 (13.1)

55 (16.8)

≥ 30.0

22 (10.3)

61 (18.7)

Education (%)

0.74

< 10 y

39 (18.2)

64 (19.6)

10-12 y

110 (51.4)

157 (48.0)

≥ 13 y

65 (30.4)

106 (32.4)

Body mass index (kg/m2)

22.4 (3.3)

23.0 (3.3)

0.04

Current drinking (%)

0.71

No

115 (53.7)

181 (55.4)

Yes

99 (46.3)

146 (44.7)

Alcohol flushing status (%)

0.39

Never flushing

107 (50.0)

166 (50.8)

Former flushing

4 (1.9)

2 (0.6)

Current flushing

103 (48.1)

159 (48.6)

Presence of medication history (%)

Hypertension

50 (23.4)

123 (37.6)

0.0005

Hypercholesterolemia

20 (9.4)

52 (15.9)

0.028

Diabetes mellitus

9 (4.2)

29 (8.9)

0.038

Daily intakea

Total energy (kJ)

8418.6 (2546.8)

8388.6 (3145.4)

0.90

Caffeine (mg/4184 KJ)

153.0 (112.2)

194.6 (139.2)

0.0001

Cholesterol (mg/4184 KJ)

157.8 (60.0)

147.7 (60.9)

0.06

Vitamin E (mg/4184 KJ)

4.2 (1.2)

4.2 (1.2)

0.88

Vitamin B-6 (mg/4184 KJ)

0.6 (0.2)

0.6 (0.2)

0.94

Iron (mg/4184 KJ)

3.8 (0.9)

3.8 (1.0)

0.47

Dietary glycemic index

64.9 (4.7)

65.4 (5.2)

0.27


a Nutrient intake was adjusted for total energy intake using the density method, except for dietary glycemic index.

Fukushima et al. BMC Neurology 2010 10:111   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-10-111

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