mRNA expressions of complement components belonging to the alternative pathway (AP) by proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). PTECs were incubated with different concentrations of normal human serum (NHS; 5% or 25%) for 3 h. There were no significant changes in the mRNA expression of AP components (P, fH, fB, C3, C5 and C9) after the addition of up to 25% NHS. (a) Serum-free medium, (b) 5% NHS and (c) 25% NHS as evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data are expressed as relative values compared with those for control cells after the addition of a serum-free medium for 0 h. The results are expressed as means ± standard errors of values from four independent experiments.
Nagamachi et al. BMC Nephrology 2014 15:82 doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-82