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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

A prediction model for renal artery stenosis using carotid ultrasonography measurements in patients undergoing coronary angiography

Yonggu Lee, Jeong-Hun Shin, Hwan-Cheol Park, Soon Gil Kim and Seong-il Choi*

Author Affiliations

Department of Cardiology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri City, Kyeungg-do, Republic of Korea

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BMC Nephrology 2014, 15:60  doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-60

Published: 14 April 2014

Abstract

Background

Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP) are well-known indicators of atherosclerosis. However, few studies have reported the value of CIMT and CAP for predicting renal artery stenosis (RAS). We investigated the predictive value of CIMT and CAP for RAS and propose a model for predicting significant RAS in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG).

Methods

Consecutive patients who underwent renal angiography at the time of CAG in a single center in 2011 were included. RAS ≥50% was considered significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis with step-down variable selection method was used to select the best model for predicting significant RAS and bootstrap resampling was used to validate the best model. A scoring system for predicting significant RAS was developed by adding the closest integers proportional to the coefficients of the regression formula.

Results

Significant RAS was observed in 60 of 641 patients (9.6%) who underwent CAG. Hypertension, diabetes, significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage ≥3 were more prevalent in patients with significant RAS. Mean age, CIMT and number of anti-hypertensive medications (AHM) were higher and body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol level were lower in patients with significant RAS. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified significant CAD (odds ratio (OR) 5.6), unilateral CAP (OR 2.6), bilateral CAP (OR 4.9), CKD stage ≥3 (OR 4.8), four or more AHM (OR 4.8), CIMT (OR 2.3), age ≥67 years (OR 2.3) and BMI <22 kg/m2 (OR 2.4) as independent predictors of significant RAS. The scoring system for predicting significant RAS, which included these predictors, had a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 81.6%. The predicted frequency of the scoring system agreed well with the observed frequency of significant RAS (coefficient of determination r2 = 0.957).

Conclusions

CIMT and CAP are independent predictors of significant RAS. The proposed scoring system, which includes CIMT and CAP, may be useful for predicting significant RAS in patients undergoing CAG.

Keywords:
Renal artery stenosis; Coronary artery disease; Carotid atherosclerotic plaque; Carotid intima-media thickness; Prediction model