Table 1

Epidemiological characteristics of subjects with diabetic nephropathy
Total Lean Group BMI < 25 Overweight Group 25 ≤ BMI < 28 Obese Group BMI ≥ 28 P value
No. of patients 264 122 83 59
BMI (kg/m2) 25.5 ± 3.39 22.6 ± 1.59 26.4 ± 0.85 31.3 ± 1.91 -
Age (years) 53.1 ± 9.06 54.1 ± 9.34 54.0 ± 8.97 53.1 ± 8.62 0.787
Male sex (%) 154(58.3%) 73(59.8%) 47(56.6%) 34(57.6%) 0.894
Known duration of diabetes (months) 111 ± 73.7 123 ± 74.8 110 ± 74.9 84.0 ± 62.1**‡ 0.002
Known duration of proteinuria (months) 27.7 ± 41.7 23.7 ± 29.7 28.0 ± 39.7 27.8 ± 56.8 0.698
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 124 ± 44 125 ± 48 117 ± 34 128 ± 51 0.338
HbA1c (%) 6.66 ± 1.33 6.81 ± 1.50 6.48 ± 1.20 6.61 ± 1.11 0.230
Mean blood pressure (mmHg) 108 ± 14.2 109 ± 14.5 105 ± 13.3 109 ± 14.8 0.139
Proteinuria (g/24 h) 3.09 ± 2.32 3.19 ± 2.19 2.97 ± 2.46 3.08 ± 2.69 0.821
   ≥3.5 g/24 h (%) 103 (37.4%) 48 (39.3%) 32 (38.6%) 23 (39.0%) 0.927
Serum albumin (g/dL) 3.45 ± 0.74 3.36 ± 0.69 3.46 ± 0.80 3.66 ± 0.74* 0.017
   <3.5 g/dL (%) 141 (53.5%) 78 (63.9%) 37 (44.6%)** 26 (44.1%)** 0.007
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 2.02 ±2.02 2.39 ± 2.27 1.52 ± 1.14** 2.00 ± 2.36 0.010
Ccr (mL/min/1.73 m2) 97.8 ± 53.4 81.6 ± 51.0 114 ± 57.6** 109 ± 64.8** < 0.001
   < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (%) 85 (32.2%) 52 (42.6%) 18 (21.7%)** 15 (25.4%)** < 0.001
Uric acid (μmol/L) 400 ± 108 391 ± 110 401 ± 101 418 ± 113 0.340
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 11.2 ± 2.6 10.4 ± 2.3 11.7 ± 2.5** 12.3 ± 2.7** <0.001
   Anemia (%) 140 (54.9%) 84 (68.9%) 39 (47.0%) ** 17 (34.7%) ** < 0.001
Volume of glomerulus (×106 μm3) 4.97 ± 0.71 4.59 ± 0.64 5.13 ± 0.81 5.53 ± 0.68* 0.031
Mean global sclerosis (%) 27.5 ± 24.2 29.1 ± 25.9 26.8 ± 23.4 25.1 ± 21.7 0.634
Mesangial expansion (0–3) 2.51 ± 1.22 2.86 ± 1.14 2.33 ± 1.25* 2.06 ± 1.21** 0.001
K-W nodule (%) 145 (55.4%) 81 (66.4%) 40 (48.2%)* 24 (40.7%)** <0.001
Interstitial fibrosis (0–3) 1.48 ± 0.72 1.57 ± 0.68 1.35 ± 0.72 1.48 ± 0.87 0.197
Tubular atrophy (0–3) 1.07 ± 0.21 1.14 ± 0.39 1.04 ± 0.37 0.97 ± 0.18* 0.012

NOTE. Values were expressed as expressed as mean ± SD and categorical data expressed as number (%). Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index; K-W, Kimmelstiel-Wilson; Ccr, creatinine clearance rate. To convert serum creatinine in μmol/L to mg/dL, multiply by 0.0113; creatinine clearance rate in mL/s/1.73 m2 to mL/min/1.73 m2, multiply by 60.0. The listed P values are based on ANOVA or Chi-square test. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01versus lean group. P < 0.01 versus overweight group.

Chen et al.

Chen et al. BMC Nephrology 2013 14:69   doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-69

Open Data