A case of lipoprotein glomerulopathy with thrombotic microangiopathy due to malignant hypertension
1 Department of Hematology, West China Hospital, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of Human Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China
2 Department of Nephrology, West China Hospital, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of Human Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China
3 Department of Medical Genetics, West China Hospital, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of Human Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China
4 Department of Nephrology, Nuclear industry 416 Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China
BMC Nephrology 2013, 14:53 doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-53Published: 28 February 2013
Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is a rare inherited renal disease characterized by intraglomerular lipoprotein within the lumina of severely dilated glomerular capillaries. The common clinical presentation of LPG includes proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome. Hypertension and anemia were thought to be mild in LPG. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in LPG has not been previously reported. In this report, we present a patient with LPG that developed TMA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of TMA in LPG.
Four years ago (2005), a 19-year-old Chinese woman was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome and provided prednisone treatment. A combination of prednisone and cyclophosphamide did not have any effect and was discontinued after six months. Although she was steroid-resistant, over the next subsequent three years, she maintained normal renal function without anemia and thrombocytopenia. In February 2009, she had a severe headache and blurry vision and presented at a local hospital with severe hypertension. Blood pressure was 220/160 mmHg. Laboratory data showed hemoglobin 3.8 g/dL; platelet counts 29×109/L; urinary protein 7.90 g/d; total bilirubin 29.9 umol/L; indirect bilirubin 28.2 umol/L; LDH 1172 U/L; ALB 2.66 g/dL; urea nitrogen 52 mg/dL; serum creatinine 3.2 mg/dL; triglyceride 253 mg/dL; total cholesterol 273 mg/dL. ANA, ds-DNA, ANCA, anti-GBM antibody and anticardiolipin were all negative. A renal biopsy revealed LPG with TMA. Genetic evaluation showed the patient carried the APOE Kyoto mutation. Adequate control of blood pressure improved microangiopathic anemia and thrombocytopenia, however, renal function did not improve and she eventually developed uremia and became hemodialysis dependent.
We report on a rare case of TMA probably due to malignant hypertension in LPG. Early lipid-lowering and antihypertensive treatment may improve outcome. The pathophysiologic relationship between LPG and TMA should be investigated further.