Table 3

Clinical characteristics of diabetic patients with any degree of CKD compared with diabetics with no CKD
no CKD CKD 1‘a’ CKD 2 CKD 3A CKD 3B CKD 4-5 P‘b’
FG ≥ 60 FG ≥ 90 FG 89-60 FG 59-45 FG 44-30 FG < 30
ACR < 30 ACR ≥ 30 CAC ≥ 30
N = 1145 (%) 826 (72.1) 40 (3.5) 73 (6.4) 133 (11.6) 60 (5.2) 13 (1.2)
Age (years) 64.9 ± 10.8 62.8 ± 10.7 67.6 ± 11.1 74.4 ± 8.6 75.2 ± 10.0 73.6 ± 10.6 0.001
Gender (Men) (n%) 511 (61.9) 25 (62.5) 47 (64.4) 63 (47.4) 36 (60.0) 7 (53.8) 0.053
BMI (kg/m2) 30.1 ± 5.2 30.4 ± 4.4 30.4 ± 5.3 30.7 ± 5.1 30.9 ± 6.0 30.1 ± 5.1 0.985
Abdominal waist circumference (cm) 99.8 ± 16.5 101.7 ± 11.7 99.4 ± 19.3 99.8 ± 19.8 100.4 ± 19.1 105.5 ± 14.1 0.950
Smoking (n%)
  Yes 118 (14.3) 12 (30.0) 13 (17.8) 8 (6.0) 5 (8.3) 2 (15.4) 0.025
  Ex-smoker 239 (28.9) 11 (27.5) 22 (30.1) 50 (37.6) 19 (31.7) 4 (30.8)
  Never 469 (56.8) 17 (42.5) 38 (52.1) 75 (56.4) 36 (60.0) 7 (53.8)
HbA1C (%) 7.2 ± 1.2 7.8 ± 1.6 7.7 ± 1.3 7.1 ± 1.2 7.0 ± 1.0 7.9 ± 1.9 0.001
Duration of DM (years) 8.5 ± 6.5 9.5 ± 6.6 9.7 ± 7.4 11.1 ± 8.5 11.0 ± 6.9 11.7 ± 8.7 0.386
Glycaemia (mmol/L) 8.05 ± 3.20 8.84± 3.23 9.00± 2.79 7.90± 2.63 7.48± 2.98 7.88 ± 3.40 0.002
Hypertension (n%) 578 (70.0) 32 (80.0) 60 (82.2) 121 (91.0) 56 (93.3) 13 (100) 0.001
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 134.0 ± 12.5 136.9 ± 15.9 136.6 ± 15.1 135.9 ± 14.2 134.2 ± 14.1 134.5 ± 16.9 0.610
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 77.8 ± 8.7 79.3 ± 9.9 76.3 ± 9.6 74.2 ± 10.0 72.8 ± 8.8 71.7 ± 6.6 0.003
Dyslipidaemia (n%) 555 (67.2) 27 (67.5) 52 (71.2) 97 (72.9) 37 (61.7) 8 (61.5) 0.638
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.75 ± 0.95 4.94 ± 1.12 4.78 ± 0.99 4.59 ± 0.89 4.65 ± 1.11 4.30 ± 0.91 0.113
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.81 ± 0.81 2.95 ± 1.00 2.76 ± 0.79 2.67 ± 0.85 2.64 ± 0.94 2.21 ± 0.56 0.082
non-HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.50 ± 0.91 3.75± 1.07 3.60 ± 1.01 3.31 ± 0.91 3.45 ± 1.08 3.22 ± 0.94 0.064
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.24 ± 0.33 1.19 ± 0.33 1.18 ± 0.26 1.28 ± 0.43 1.17 ± 0.34 1.07 ± 0.25 0.244
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.63 ± 0.94 1.88 ± 0.94 1.89 ± 1.21 1.76 ± 1.03 1.90 ± 0.96 2.17 ± 1.07 0.477
Plasmatic creatinine (mg/dl) 0.8 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.1 1.5 ± 0.2 2.3 ± 0.5 0.001

‘a’ CKD (1, 2, 3A, 3B, 4–5) different stages of CKD ‘b’ P (Kruskall-Wallis test, Chi-squared test).

eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate. ACR = albumin-creatinine ratio. CKD = Chronic Kidney Disease. BMI = Body Mass Index. HbA1C = glycosilated hemoglobin. eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate. LDL cholesterol = Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol. HDL cholesterol = High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol.

Rodriguez-Poncelas et al.

Rodriguez-Poncelas et al. BMC Nephrology 2013 14:46   doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-46

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