Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes in Spain: PERCEDIME2 study

Antonio Rodriguez-Poncelas12, Josep Garre-Olmo2, Josep Franch-Nadal34, Javier Diez-Espino5, Xavier Mundet-Tuduri46, Joan Barrot-De la Puente7, Gabriel Coll-de Tuero12* and RedGDPS Study Group

Author Affiliations

1 EAP Anglès, Girona, Spain

2 Unitat de Recerca IAS, Salt, Spain

3 EAP Raval Sud, Barcelona, Spain

4 Unitat de Recerca Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain

5 EAP Tafalla, Navarra, Spain

6 EAP El Carmel, Barcelona, Spain

7 EAP Salt, Girona, Spain

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Nephrology 2013, 14:46  doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-46

Published: 22 February 2013



The objective of this study was to determinate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the different stages of CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) treated in primary care consults in Spain.


A national cross-sectional study was performed in primary care consults. The following data were collected: demographic and anthropometric information; list of present cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF); previous macrovascular and microvascular disease history; physical examination and analytical data from the previous 12 months, including the urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to evaluate renal function.


With regard to the patients, 27.9% presented some degree of CKD as follows: 3.5% with stage 1; 6.4% with stage 2; 16.8% with stage 3 (11.6% with stage 3A and 5.2% with stage 3B); and 1.2% with stages 4 and 5. The prevalence of patients with UACR ≥ 30 mg/g was 15.4% (13% microalbuminuria and 2.4% macroalbuminuria). Renal impairment (RI) was found in 206 patients (18%) of whom 133 patients (64.6%) was stage 3A, 60 patients (29.1%) was stage 3B and 13 patients (6.3%) stages 4 and 5. Among patients with RI, 143 patients (69.4%) had normoalbuminuria.

The following variables were significantly associated with CKD: age; sex (women); systolic arterial blood pressure (SABP) ≥ 150 mmHg; and a previous history of cardiovascular disease.


The results showed that the prevalence for any type of CKD was 27.9%. A systematic determination of UACR and eGFR may contribute to an early diagnosis, thus allowing intervention during the initial stages of the disease when treatment is more efficient.

Cross-sectional study; Chronic kidney disease; Renal impairment; Albuminuria; Type 2 diabetes mellitus