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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Fibroblast growth factor-23 and calcium phosphate product in young chronic kidney disease patients: a cross-sectional study

Abeer Yasin1, Daisy Liu1, Luan Chau2, Joaquín Madrenas24 and Guido Filler123*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital, London Health Science Center, University of Western Ontario, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario, N6A 5W9, Canada

2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Medicine, and Center for Human Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada

3 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, DSB 4044, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University f Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada

4 Department of Microbiology & Immunology, McGill University, Room 511, Duff Medical Building, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B4, Canada

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BMC Nephrology 2013, 14:39  doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-39

Published: 17 February 2013

Abstract

Background

Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), a novel marker of bone disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to correlate with vascular calcifications. We aimed to describe the effect of the calcium phosphate product (Ca*P) on FGF-23 concentrations in children and young adults without confounding cardiovascular disease.

Methods

Pediatric and young adult patients with CKD stages I-V were recruited in this cross sectional study to measure FGF-23, cystatin C, vitamin D-metabolites and other serum markers of bone metabolism. FGF-23 levels were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association between FGF-23 and (Ca*P) was assessed using non-parametric methods. Patients were divided into two age groups, less than 13 years of age and greater than 13 years of age.

Results

This cross-sectional study measured serum FGF-23, in 81 patients (42 females, 51.9%) at London Health Sciences Centre, aged 2 to 25 years, with various stages of CKD (Cystatin C estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR=10.7-213.0 ml/min). For the whole entire group of patients, FGF-23 levels were found to correlate significantly with age (Spearman r= 0.26, p=0.0198), Cystatin C eGFR (Spearman r=−0.40 p=0.0002), CKD stage (Spearman r=0.457, p<0.0001), PTH (Spearman r=0.330, p=0.0039), ionized calcium (Spearman r=−0.330, p=0.0049), CysC (Spearman r= 0.404, p=0.0002) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (Spearman r=−0.345, p=0.0034) concentrations. No significant correlation was found between FGF-23 levels and calcium phosphate product (Spearman r= 0.164, p=0.142). Upon classification of patients into two age groups, less than 13 years of age and more than 13 years of age, correlational results differed significantly. FGF-23 correlated with CysC eGFR( Spearman r= −0.633, p<0.0001), CKD stage (Spearman r=0.731, p<0.0001), phosphate (Spearman r= 0.557, p<0.0001), calcium phosphate product (Spearman r=0.534, p<0.0001), 125(OH)2 Vit D (Spearman r=−0.631, p<0.0001), PTH (Spearman r= 0.475, p=0.0017) and ionized calcium (Spearman r= −0.503, p=0.0015) only in the older group. The relationship between FGF-23 and Ca*P for the older group could be expressed by the exponential model FGF-23= 38.15 e0.4625Ca*P.

Conclusion

Abnormal values of FGF-23 in adolescents and young adults with CKD correlate with Ca* P in the absence of vascular calcifications, and may serve as a biomarker for the risk of cardiovascular calcifications.

Keywords:
Chronic kidney disease; Fibroblast growth factor 23; Parathyroid hormone; Renal osteodystrophy; Calcium phosphate product