Table 2

Clinical characteristics of patients according to chronic kidney disease stages
CKD stage 1–2 (n = 27) CKD stage 3 (n = 55) CKD stage 4 (n = 60) CKD stage 5 (n = 53) P values
Age 57.3 ± 12.9 68.3 ± 10.2* 72.3 ± 9.2* 71.1 ± 10.2* <0.01
Male 11 (41) 41 (75) 42 (70) 35 (66) 0.02
Hypertension 15 (56) 47 (85) 58 (97) 51 (96) <0.01
Diabetes mellitus 5 (19) 25 (45) 30 (50) 32 (60) <0.01
Smoking 12 (44) 31 (56) 34 (57) 33 (62) 0.51
Dyslipidemia 16 (59) 40 (73) 48 (80) 42 (79) 0.19
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.9 ± 3.3 23.3 ± 3.5 22.9 ± 5.1 21.0 ± 4.9 0.04
Proteinuria (g/day) 0.9 (0.4-1.8) 1.1 (0.1-3.4) 0.9 (0.1-3.5) 2.3 (0.7-4.0)** 0.03
C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.12 (0.05-0.23) 0.06 (0.03-0.17) 0.15 (0.04-0.26) 0.08 (0.05-0.20) 0.12
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.9 ± 1.9 11.6 ± 1.9* 10.3 ± 1.6* 9.0 ± 1.5* <0.01
Serum corrected calcium (mg/dL) 9.6 ± 0.6 9.6 ± 0.6 9.4 ± 0.5 9.2 ± 0.5* <0.01
Serum phosphorus (mg/dL) 3.4 ± 0.5 3.4 ± 0.5 3.6 ± 0.5 4.4 ± 0.9* <0.01
Ca-P product (mg2/dL2) 32.6 ± 5.1 32.8 ± 5.0 34.1 ± 5.5 40.4 ± 8.5* <0.01
Log PTH (pg/mL) 3.6 ± 0.4 3.9 ± 0.4 4.4 ± 0.6* 5.0 ± 0.6* <0.01
Log 1,25(OH)2Vitamin D (pg/mL) 3.8 ± 0.4 3.6 ± 0.4 3.2 ± 0.4* 2.6 ± 0.6* <0.01
Log FGF23 (pg/mL) 3.5 ± 0.5 3.9 ± 0.4** 4.3 ± 0.7* 5.0 ± 0.9* <0.01
CAAC 10 (37) 32 (58) 45 (75) 41 (77) <0.01

Values are expressed as the means ± SD, number (percent), or median (interquartile range).

CKD chronic kidney disease, Ca-P calcium-phosphorus, PTH parathyroid hormone, FGF fibroblast growth factor, CAAC carotid artery calcification.

*p < 0.01, **p < 0.05 vs. CKD stage 1–2.

Nakayama et al.

Nakayama et al. BMC Nephrology 2013 14:22   doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-22

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