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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

The added-up albumin enhances the diuretic effect of furosemide in patients with hypoalbuminemic chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled study

Bunyong Phakdeekitcharoen1* and Kochawan Boonyawat2

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

2 Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

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BMC Nephrology 2012, 13:92  doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-92

Published: 29 August 2012

Abstract

Background

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) with edema is a common clinical problem resulting from defects in water and solute excretion. Furosemide is the drug of choice for treatment. In theory, good perfusion and albumin are required for the furosemide to be secreted at the tubular lumen. Thus, in the situation of low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and hypoalbuminemia, the efficacy of furosemide alone might be limited. There has been no study to validate the effectiveness of the combination of furosemide and albumin in this condition.

Methods

We conducted a randomized controlled crossover study to compare the efficacy of diuretics between furosemide alone and the combination of furosemide plus albumin in stable hypoalbuminemic CKD patients by measuring urine output and sodium. The baseline urine output/sodium at 6 and 24 hours were recorded. The increment of urine output/sodium after treatment at 6 and 24 hours were calculated by using post-treatment minus baseline urine output/sodium at the corresponding period.

Results

Twenty-four CKD patients (GFR = 31.0 ± 13.8 mL/min) with hypoalbuminemia (2.98 ± 0.30 g/dL) were enrolled. At 6 hours, there were significant differences in the increment of urine volume (0.47 ± 0.40 vs 0.67 ± 0.31 L, P < 0.02) and urine sodium (37.5 ± 29.3 vs 55.0 ± 26.7 mEq, P < 0.01) between treatment with furosemide alone and with furosemide plus albumin. However, at 24 hours, there were no significant differences in the increment of urine volume (0.49 ± 0.47 vs 0.59 ± 0.50 L, P = 0.46) and urine sodium (65.3 ± 47.5 vs 76.1 ± 50.1 mEq, P = 0.32) between the two groups.

Conclusion

The combination of furosemide and albumin has a superior short-term efficacy over furosemide alone in enhancing water and sodium diuresis in hypoalbuminemic CKD patients.

Trial registration

The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registration (ANZCTR12611000480987)

Keywords:
Chronic kidney disease (CKD); Furosemide; Albumin; Edema