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What do we know about chronic kidney disease in India: first report of the Indian CKD registry

Mohan M Rajapurkar1, George T John2, Ashok L Kirpalani3, Georgi Abraham4, Sanjay K Agarwal5, Alan F Almeida6, Sishir Gang1, Amit Gupta7, Gopesh Modi8, Dilip Pahari9, Ramdas Pisharody10, Jai Prakash11, Anuradha Raman12, Devinder S Rana13, Raj K Sharma7, RN Sahoo14, Vinay Sakhuja15, Ravi Raju Tatapudi16 and Vivekanand Jha15*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Nephrology, Muljibhai Patel Society for Research in Nephro-Urology, Dr Virendra Desai Road, Nadiad, 387001 India

2 Department of Nephrology, Christian Medical College, Ida Scudder Road, 632004 Vellore, India

3 Department of Nephrology, Bombay Hospital, 12, Marine Lines, Mumbai - 400020, India

4 Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical Mission, 4-A, Dr. J. Jayalalitha Nagar, Mogappair, Chennai 600037, India

5 Department of Nephrology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari nagar, New Delhi 110029, India

6 Department of Nephrology, P.D. Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Veer Savarkar Marg, Mahim, Mumbai 400 016, India

7 Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raibarely Road, Lucknow 226014, India

8 Samarpan Kidney Center, B 288 C Sector, Shahpura, Bhopal 462019, India

9 Department of Nephrology, Medica Superspecialty Hospital, 127 Mukundapur, E.M Bypass, Kolkata 700099, India

10 Department of Nephrology, Government Medical College, Ulloor Road, Trivandrum 695011 India

11 Department of Nephrology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India

12 Department of Nephrology, Mediciti Hospital, 5-9-22, Secretariat Road, Hyderabad 500063, India

13 Department of Nephrology, Sir Gangaram Hospital, Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060 India

14 Department of Nephrology, SCB Medical College, Buxibazar, Cuttack 753007, India

15 Department of Nephrology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012 India

16 Department of Nephrology, Andhra Medical College, M.R.Peta, Vishakhapattanam 530002, India

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BMC Nephrology 2012, 13:10  doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-10

Published: 6 March 2012



There are no national data on the magnitude and pattern of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in India. The Indian CKD Registry documents the demographics, etiological spectrum, practice patterns, variations and special characteristics.


Data was collected for this cross-sectional study in a standardized format according to predetermined criteria. Of the 52,273 adult patients, 35.5%, 27.9%, 25.6% and 11% patients came from South, North, West and East zones respectively.


The mean age was 50.1 ± 14.6 years, with M:F ratio of 70:30. Patients from North Zone were younger and those from the East Zone older. Diabetic nephropathy was the commonest cause (31%), followed by CKD of undetermined etiology (16%), chronic glomerulonephritis (14%) and hypertensive nephrosclerosis (13%). About 48% cases presented in Stage V; they were younger than those in Stages III-IV. Diabetic nephropathy patients were older, more likely to present in earlier stages of CKD and had a higher frequency of males; whereas those with CKD of unexplained etiology were younger, had more females and more frequently presented in Stage V. Patients in lower income groups had more advanced CKD at presentation. Patients presenting to public sector hospitals were poorer, younger, and more frequently had CKD of unknown etiology.


This report confirms the emergence of diabetic nephropathy as the pre-eminent cause in India. Patients with CKD of unknown etiology are younger, poorer and more likely to present with advanced CKD. There were some geographic variations.