Open Access Research article

The candidate genes TAF5L, TCF7, PDCD1, IL6 and ICAM1 cannot be excluded from having effects in type 1 diabetes

Jason D Cooper1, Deborah J Smyth1, Rebecca Bailey1, Felicity Payne12, Kate Downes1, Lisa M Godfrey1, Jennifer Masters13, Lauren R Zeitels1, Adrian Vella14, Neil M Walker1 and John A Todd1*

Author Affiliations

1 Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 OXY, UK

2 Metabolic Disease Group, Sulston Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK

3 Division of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, East Anglia Blood Centre, Cambridge, CB2 2PT, UK

4 Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 200 First ST SW, Rochester, MN55905, USA

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BMC Medical Genetics 2007, 8:71  doi:10.1186/1471-2350-8-71

Published: 28 November 2007



As genes associated with immune-mediated diseases have an increased prior probability of being associated with other immune-mediated diseases, we tested three such genes, IL23R, IRF5 and CD40, for an association with type 1 diabetes. In addition, we tested seven genes, TAF5L, PDCD1, TCF7, IL12B, IL6, ICAM1 and TBX21, with published marginal or inconsistent evidence of an association with type 1 diabetes.


We genotyped reported polymorphisms of the ten genes, nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) and, for the IL12B and IL6 regions, tag SNPs in up to 7,888 case, 8,858 control and 3,142 parent-child trio samples. In addition, we analysed data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium genome-wide association study to determine whether there was any further evidence of an association in each gene region.


We found some evidence of associations between type 1 diabetes and TAF5L, PDCD1, TCF7 and IL6 (ORs = 1.05 – 1.13; P = 0.0291 – 4.16 × 10-4). No evidence of an association was obtained for IL12B, IRF5, IL23R, ICAM1, TBX21 and CD40, although there was some evidence of an association (OR = 1.10; P = 0.0257) from the genome-wide association study for the ICAM1 region.


We failed to exclude the possibility of some effect in type 1 diabetes for TAF5L, PDCD1, TCF7, IL6 and ICAM1. Additional studies, of these and other candidate genes, employing much larger sample sizes and analysis of additional polymorphisms in each gene and its flanking region will be required to ascertain their contributions to type 1 diabetes susceptibility.