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Open Access Research article

Apolipoprotein E gene ε4ε4 is associated with elevated risk of primary open angle glaucoma in Asians: a meta-analysis

Yong Wang, Yan-Feng Zhou, Bing-Ying Zhao, Zheng-Yu Gu and Shou-Ling Li*

Author Affiliations

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, 218 Jixi Road, Hefei 230022, Anhui, China

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BMC Medical Genetics 2014, 15:60  doi:10.1186/1471-2350-15-60

Published: 19 May 2014

Abstract

Background

Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and glaucoma susceptibility. However, the published data are still inconclusive. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of APOE gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism on glaucoma risk by using meta-analysis.

Methods

A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Elsevier Science Direct and CNKI databases was conducted to identify relevant articles, with the last report up to January 5, 2014. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of association by using the fixed or random effect model.

Results

Fifteen separate studies including 2,700 cases and 2,365 controls were included in the meta-analysis. We did not detect a significant association between APOE gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and glaucoma in overall population (P > 0.0083). In Asians, we detected an association of the ε4ε4 genotype with elevated risk for glaucoma (OR = 5.22, 95% CI = 1.85-14.68, P = 0.002), mainly for primary open angle glaucoma (OR = 4.98, 95% CI = 1.75-14.20, P = 0.003).

Conclusions

The meta-analysis suggests that APOE gene ε4ε4 may be associated with elevated risk for primary open angle glaucoma in Asians. However, more epidemiologic studies based on larger sample size, case–control design and stratified by ethnicity as well as types of glaucoma are suggested to further clarify the relationship between APOE gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and genetic predisposition to glaucoma.

Keywords:
Glaucoma; APOE; Genetic; Meta-analysis