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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Re-sequencing of the APOAI promoter region and the genetic association of the -75G > A polymorphism with increased cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels among a sample of the Kuwaiti population

Suzanne A Al-Bustan1*, Ahmad E Al-Serri2, Babitha G Annice1, Majed A Alnaqeeb1 and Ghada A Ebrahim3

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kuwait University, PO Box 5069, Safat 13060, Kuwait

2 Department of Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Safat Kuwait

3 Yarmouk Clinic, Ministry of Health, Safat Kuwait

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BMC Medical Genetics 2013, 14:90  doi:10.1186/1471-2350-14-90

Published: 12 September 2013

Abstract

Background

APOAI, a member of the APOAI/CIII/IV/V gene cluster on chromosome 11q23-24, encodes a major protein component of HDL that has been associated with serum lipid levels. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic association of polymorphisms in the APOAI promoter region with plasma lipid levels in a cohort of healthy Kuwaiti volunteers.

Methods

A 435 bp region of the APOAI promoter was analyzed by re-sequencing in 549 Kuwaiti samples. DNA was extracted from blood taken from 549 healthy Kuwaiti volunteers who had fasted for the previous 12 h. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine allele association with serum lipid levels.

Results

The target sequence included a partial segment of the promoter region, 5’UTR and exon 1 located between nucleotides −141 to +294 upstream of the APOAI gene on chromosome 11. No novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed. The sequences obtained were deposited with the NCBI GenBank with accession number [GenBank: JX438706]. The allelic frequencies for the three SNPs were as follows: APOAI rs670G = 0.807; rs5069C = 0.964; rs1799837G = 0.997 and found to be in HWE. A significant association (p < 0.05) was observed for the APOAI rs670 polymorphism with increased serum LDL-C. Multivariate analysis showed that APOAI rs670 was an independent predictive factor when controlling for age, sex and BMI for both LDL-C (OR: 1.66, p = 0.014) and TC (OR: 1.77, p = 0.006) levels.

Conclusion

This study is the first to report sequence analysis of the APOAI promoter in an Arab population. The unexpected positive association found between the APOAI rs670 polymorphism and increased levels of LDL-C and TC may be due to linkage disequilibrium with other polymorphisms in candidate and neighboring genes known to be associated with lipid metabolism and transport.

Keywords:
APOAI; Polymorphism; LDL; Re-sequencing; SNPs; Arabs; Kuwait