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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Effects of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on urolithiasis risk: a meta-analysis

Pan Zhang1, Wei Nie2 and Hong Jiang1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Nephrology, the First People’s Hospital of Jingzhou City, the First Hospital of Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei Province 434000, China

2 Department of Respiratory Disease, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China

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BMC Medical Genetics 2013, 14:104  doi:10.1186/1471-2350-14-104

Published: 6 October 2013



Several studies analyzed the associations of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms with urolithiasis risk in different ethnic groups. However, the results were inconclusive. To evaluate a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed.


Pubmed, EMBASE, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Weipu Database were searched. Data were extracted independently by two investigators. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations.


Twenty-three case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Significant associations between ApaI, BsmI, FokI, and TaqI polymorphisms and urolithiasis risk were observed. However, sensitivity analyses for BsmI and FokI polymorphisms indicated that the results were not reliable and credible. In addition, there was a significant association of the ApaI-TaqI haplotype with urolithiasis risk.


This meta-analysis suggested that ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms in VDR gene were associated with urolithiasis risk.

Urolithiasis; Vitamin D receptor; Polymorphism; Meta-analysis