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Age and gender specific normal values of left ventricular mass, volume and function for gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging: a cross sectional study

Peter A Cain1, Ragnhild Ahl1, Erik Hedstrom1, Martin Ugander1, Ase Allansdotter-Johnsson2, Peter Friberg3 and Hakan Arheden1*

Author Affiliations

1 Dept of Clinical Physiology, Lund University Hospital, SE-22185, Lund, Sweden

2 Dept of Radiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, SE-413 45, Gothenburg, Sweden

3 Dept of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, SE-413 45, Gothenburg, Sweden

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BMC Medical Imaging 2009, 9:2  doi:10.1186/1471-2342-9-2

Published: 21 January 2009



Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study.


Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male). Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA).


Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006) and ESV (p < 0.001), similar SV (p = 0.51) and lower EF (p = 0.014). No gender differences were seen in the youngest, 11–15 year, age range.


LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use.