Table 1

Pooled diagnostic validity of musculoskeletal ultrasound abnormalities in elbows with LE
MSUS findings N = investigations Sensitivity p-value, I2 N = investigations Specificity p-value, I2
Over-all GS changes 3 [25,28,31] 0.77 (0.69-0.84) 0.81,0 3 [25,28,31] 0.73 (0.66-0.80)$ 0.08,61
PDU + GS changes 4 [26,27,31] 0.69 (0.64-0.73) <0.0001,97 4 [26,27,31] 0.82 (0.76-0.86)$ <0.001,85
Hypoechogenicity (criterion A) 2 [25,30] 0.65 (0.56-0.73) 0.74, 0 0 NA NA
Hypoechogenicity (criterion B using RTSE) 3 [16] 0.64 (0.55-0.73) <0.0001,89 3 [16] 0.96 (0.91-0.99)$ <0.01,82
Hypoechogenicity (criterion A with probe) 3 [18,25,30] 0.64 (0.56-0.72) 0.80,0 2 [18,25] 0.82 (0.72-0.90)$ 0.61,0
Calcifications 3 [26-28] 0.33 (0.28-0.38) <0.0001,96 3 [26-28] 0.97 (0.94-0.99)# 0.16,45
Neovascularity (PDU) 2 [27,31] 0.26 (0.21-0.32) <0.0001,98 2 [27,31] 1.00 (0.97-1.00)$ 0.10,63
Thickness (criterion A) 2 [30,31] 0.42 (0.32-0.53) <0.01,88 0 NA NA
Thickness (criterion B) 4 [27,28] 0.51 (0.47-0.55) <0.0001, 95 4 [27,28] 0.80 (0.75-0.84)# <0.0001, 94
Enthesopathy 2 [25] 0.38 (0.29-0.47) <0.0001, 98 0 NA NA
Cortical irregularities (criterion A) 2 [28,30] 0.20 (0.14-0.29) 0.53,0 0 NA NA
Cortical spurs (criterion A) 2 [30,34] 0.13 (0.07-0.21) 0.03, 78 0 NA NA
Bone changes (cortical irregularities or spurs) (criterion A) 2 [27,31] 0.56 (0.50-0.62) 0.41,0 2 [27,31] 0.84 (0.78-0.88)$ <0.0001, 96
Cortical irregularities (criterion A with sonographic probe-induced tenderness) 3 [26,28,30] 0.20 (0.14-0.27) 0.79,0 2 [26,28] 0.96 (0.88-0.99)# 0.34,0
Partial tear 2 [30,35] 0.29 (0.12-0.27) 0.02,80 0 NA NA
Full tear 2 [30,35] 0.02 (0.00-0.06) 0.14,55 0 NA NA

Key: GS, Gray-scale, I2, Iconsistency-square test for homogeneity; LE, Lateral Epicondylalgia; MSUS, musculoskeletal ultrasound; N, number; NA, not applicable; PDU, Power Doppler Ultrasonography; RTSE, Real-time Sonoelastography; #, healthy elbows; $, combined asymptomatic and healthy elbows.

Dones et al.

Dones et al. BMC Medical Imaging 2014 14:10   doi:10.1186/1471-2342-14-10

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