Table 4

Selected determinants of HPV DNA detection in children at any time during follow up.

Mother's and pregnancy characteristics

HPV

Positive/Tested

HPV-positive children

(%)

OR

(95% CI)


Total

26/143

18.2%

Age at delivery

<26

5/22

22.7

1.0

Reference

26–30

9/45

20.0

0.85

(0.25–2.93)

31–35

8/52

15.4

0.62

(0.18–2.16)

>35

4/24

16.7

0.68

(0.16–2.94)

Chi-square p-value

0.87

Weeks of pregnancy at delivery

<38

3/13

23.1

1.0

Reference

38–39

15/80

18.8

0.77

(0.19–3.14)

>39

8/50

16.0

0.64

(0.14–2.84)

Chi-square p-value

0.82

Type of delivery

Eutocic

12/86

14.0

1.0

Reference

Instrumental

10/38

26.3

2.20

(0.85–5.68)

Cesarean section

4/19

21.1

1.60

(0.45–5.75)

Chi-square p-value

0.24

Duration of delivery (hours)

<1

3/13

23.1

1.0

Reference

1–5

13/75

17.3

0.71

(0.17–2.97)

6–10

7/47

14.9

0.60

(0.13–2.83)

>10

3/8

37.5

2.10

(0.28–15.57)

Chi-square p-value

0.46

Marital status

Married or Cohabiting

25/136

18.4

1.0

Reference

Single or Separated

1/7

14.3

0.78

(0.09–7.10)

Chi-square p-value

0.78

Age at first intercourse

≤ 17

9/42

21.4

1.0

Reference

18–19

7/35

20.0

0.89

(0.28–2.79)

≥ 20

6/37

16.2

0.67

(0.21–2.20)

Unknown

4/29

Chi-square p-value

0.84

Number of previous pregnancies

0

9/46

19.6

1.0

Reference

1

8/47

17.0

0.89

(0.31–2.61)

2

5/34

14.7

0.79

(0.22–2.79)

≥ 3

4/16

25.0

1.69

(0.35–8.29)

Chi-square p-value

0.83

Lifetime no. of sexual partners

1

9/44

20.5

1.0

Reference

2–4

8/39

20.5

1.01

(0.35–2.94)

≥ 5

5/31

16.1

0.76

(0.23–2.57)

Unknown

4/29

Chi-square p-value

0.87

Previous history of STD

No

15/92

16.3

1.0

Reference

Yes

5/17

29.4

2.19

(0.67–7.16)

Unknown

6/34

Chi-square p-value

0.20

Hormonal contraceptive use

Never

10/26

38.5

1.0

Reference

Ever

12/88

13.6

0.24

(0.09–0.67)

Unknown

4/29

Chi-square p-value

0.005

Tobacco smoking status

Never smoker

7/33

21.2

1.0

Reference

Ex-smoker

5/20

25.0

1.21

(0.32–4.52)

Current smoker

10/66

15.2

0.65

(0.22–1.96)

Unknown

4/24

Chi-square p-value

0.55

Cytology results at pregnancy

Normal-ASCUS

21/121

17.4

1.0

Reference

LSIL-HSIL

3/17

17.6

1.04

(0.27–3.98)

Unknown

2/5

Chi-square p-value

0.98

Mother's HPV status at pregnancy

Negative

13/77

16.9

1.0

Reference

Positive

13/66

19.7

1.25

(0.53–2.94)

Chi-square p-value

0.66

Mother's HPV status at post-partum visit

Negative

12/93

12.9

1.0

Reference

Positive

8/25

32.0

3.22

(1.14–9.10)

Unknown

6/25

Chi-square p-value

0.02

Mother's HPV status at pregnancy and/or post-partum visit

Negative at both visits

10/65

15.4

1.0

Reference

Positive at either visit

7/43

16.3

1.09

(0.38–3.14)

Positive at both visits

7/24

29.2

2.33

(0.76–7.10)

Unknown

2/11

Chi-square p-value

0.30


Models were adjusted by age group (≤ 28, 29–33, ≥ 34). No association was found with fetal stress at delivery, parity, duration and intensity of smoking, child's sex, no. of sex partners before or after 20 years of age or history of genital warts.

Castellsagué et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:74   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-74

Open Data