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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in Goulmoun, a rural city in south-western Chad

Clément Kerah-Hinzoumbé123*, Mallaye Péka4, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio2, Issa Donan-Gouni1, Parfait Awono-Ambene2, Albert Samè-Ekobo5 and Frédéric Simard6

Author Affiliations

1 Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme, N'Djaména, Tchad

2 Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte contre les Endémies en Afrique Centrale (OCEAC), Yaoundé, Cameroun

3 Université de Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroun

4 Division de l'Hygiène du Milieu et de l'Assainissement, N'Djaména, Tchad

5 Faculté de Médecine et de Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Douala, Cameroun

6 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UR016, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2009, 9:71  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-71

Published: 23 May 2009



Knowledge of some baseline entomological data such as Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIR) is crucially needed to assess the epidemiological impact of malaria control activities directed either against parasites or vectors. In Chad, most published surveys date back to the 1960's. In this study, anopheline species composition and their relation to malaria transmission were investigated in a dry Sudanian savannas area of Chad.


A 12-month longitudinal survey was conducted in the irrigated rice-fields area of Goulmoun in south western Chad. Human landing catches were performed each month from July 2006 to June 2007 in three compounds (indoors and outdoors) and pyrethrum spray collections were conducted in July, August and October 2006 in 10 randomly selected rooms. Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex and to the An. funestus group were identified by molecular diagnostic tools. Plasmodium falciparum infection and blood meal sources were detected by ELISA.


Nine anopheline species were collected by the two sampling methods. The most aggressive species were An. arabiensis (51 bites/human/night), An. pharoensis (12.5 b/h/n), An. funestus (1.5 b/h/n) and An. ziemanni (1.3 b/h/n). The circumsporozoite protein rate was 1.4% for An. arabiensis, 1.4% for An. funestus, 0.8% for An. pharoensis and 0.5% for An. ziemanni. Malaria transmission is seasonal, lasting from April to December. However, more than 80% of the total EIR was concentrated in the period from August to October. The overall annual EIR was estimated at 311 bites of infected anophelines/human/year, contributed mostly by An. arabiensis (84.5%) and An. pharoensis (12.2%). Anopheles funestus and An. ziemanni played a minor role. Parasite inoculation occurred mostly after 22:00 hours but around 20% of bites of infected anophelines were distributed earlier in the evening.


The present study revealed the implication of An. pharoensis in malaria transmission in the irrigated rice fields of Goulmoun, complementing the major role played by An. arabiensis. The transmission period did not depend upon irrigation. Correct use of insecticide treated nets in this area may be effective for vector control although additional protective measures are needed to prevent pre-bedtime exposure to the bites of infected anophelines.