Table 4

The clinical details and risk factors for neurological involvement of the nine fatal case children with HFMD seen in the study.

Patient

Year

of the outbreak

Age (months)

Day of illness at presentation

Risk factors that were present at presentation

Disease severity

HEV71 detected?

IVIG treatment

Note


1

2000

11

Day 3

fever ≥ 3D, history of lethargy, temperature ≥ 38.5°C

HFMD-CNS

Yes

No

a.

2

2003

34

Day 5

fever ≥ 3D, history of lethargy

HFMD-CNS

Yes

No

b.

3

2003

32

Day 3

fever ≥ 3D, history of lethargy

HFMD-CNS

No

No

a.

4

2006

9

Day 1

history of lethargy, temperature ≥ 38.5°C

HFMD-CNS

Yes

Yes

c.

5

2006

8

Day 3

fever ≥ 3D, history of lethargy, temperature ≥ 38.5°C

HFMD-CNS

Yes

No

a.

6

2006

14

Day 3

fever ≥ 3D, history of lethargy, temperature ≥ 38.5°C

HFMD-CNS

Yes

No

a.

7

2006

34

Day 4

fever ≥ 3D, history of lethargy, temperature ≥ 38.5°C

HFMD-CNS

Yes

No

a.

8

2006

25

Day 4

fever ≥ 3D, history of lethargy, temperature ≥ 38.5°C

HFMD-CNS

No

No

a.

9

2006

47

Day 4

fever ≥ 3D, history of lethargy

HFMD-CNS

No

No

a.


Note:

a. Presented in the moribund state with fulminant cardiorespiratory failure and pulmonary oedema. The patient died within 24 hours of the hospitalization. The risk factors were present for ≥ 48 hours before hospital admission.

b. Developed acute cardiorespiratory collapse and died 12 hours after hospitalization. Had peak temperature ≥ 38.5°C in the hospital. The patient was lethargic for ≥ 48 hours before hospital admission.

c. Deteriorated progressively because of cardiorespiratory failure despite intensive care support. Died on day 4 of the hospitalization. The patient was lethargic for 24 hours before hospital admission

HFMD-CNS: Hand, foot and mouth disease with central nervous system complication

IVIG: Intravenous immunoglobulin

Ooi et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2009 9:3   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-3

Open Data