Severity of Giardia infection associated with post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after
1 National Centre for Tropical Infectious Diseases, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
2 Unit for Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
3 Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway
4 Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Norway
5 Research Unit for General Practice, Unifob Health, Bergen, Norway
6 Centre for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
7 Unit for Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
BMC Infectious Diseases 2009, 9:206 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-206Published: 15 December 2009
A high rate of post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after a waterborne outbreak of giardiasis in Bergen, Norway in 2004 has previously been reported. The aim of this report was to identify risk factors associated with such manifestations.
All laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis (n = 1262) during the outbreak in Bergen in 2004 received a postal questionnaire two years after. Degree of post-infectious abdominal symptoms and fatigue, as well as previous abdominal problems, was recorded. In the statistical analyses number of treatment courses, treatment refractory infection, delayed education and sick leave were used as indices of protracted and severe Giardia infection. Age, gender, previous abdominal problems and symptoms during infection were also analysed as possible risk factors. Simple and multiple ordinal logistic regression models were used for the analyses.
The response rate was 81% (1017/1262), 64% were women and median age was 31 years (range 3-93), compared to 61% women and 30 years (range 2-93) among all 1262 cases. Factors in multiple regression analysis significantly associated with abdominal symptoms two years after infection were: More than one treatment course, treatment refractory infection, delayed education, bloating and female gender. Abdominal problems prior to Giardia infection were not associated with post-infectious abdominal symptoms. More than one treatment course, delayed education, sick leave more than 2 weeks, and malaise at the time of infection, were significantly associated with fatigue in the multiple regression analysis, as were increasing age and previous abdominal problems.
Protracted and severe giardiasis seemed to be a risk factor for post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after clearing the Giardia infection.