Table 2

Blood concentration of ethanol and acetaldehyde (mg/L) before and after 10 surgical hand disinfections

Hand rub

Substance

Before first application

Time after last application


5 min

10 min

20 min

30 min

60 min

90 min

120 min


A

Ethanol

0.07 (0.07–0.07)

15.70 (15.39–16.01)

12.20 (11.81–12.60)

14.40 (13.72–15.08)

17.50 (16.49–18.51)

11.25 (10.84–11.66)

10.06 (9.71–10.38)

Not done

Acetaldehyde

0.80 (0.78–0.82)

2.70 (2.64–2.76)

3.00 (2.95–3.06)

4.00 (3.90–4.09)

3.55 (3.46–3.64)

2.60 (2.46–2.74)

2.55 (2.44–2.66)

Not done

B

Ethanol

0.07 (0.07–0.07)

11.10 (10.85–11.35)

12.50 (11.09–13.91)

21.60 (17.30–25.89)

30.10 (28.09–32.11)

15.00 (12.81–17.19)

4.70 (3.80–5.60)

Not done

Acetaldehyde

0.55 (0.54–0.56)

2.30 (2.25–2.36)

2.20 (2.13–2.27)

2.30 (2.21–2.31)

3.30 (3.24–3.36)

2.50 (2.44–2.56)

1.30 (1.24–1.36)

Not done

C

Ethanol

0.07 (0.07–0.07)

6.10 (5.84–6.38)

6.40 (5.74–7.06)

8.80 (7.34–10.26)

8.15 (7.34–8.96)

3.70 (3.44–3.96)

1.50 (1.40–1.59)

0.90 (0.83–0.97)

Acetaldehyde

0.40 (0.39–0.41)

1.25 (1.21–1.29)

1.50 (1.48–1.53)

1.70 (1.67–1.73)

0.90 (0.86–0.94)

0.70 (0.66–0.74)

1.00 (0.97–1.03)

1.00 (0.98–1.02)


Hand rub A (95% ethanol), hand rub B (85% ethanol), hand rub C (55% ethanol); Median with 95% CI (brackets) from 12 volunteers; total exposure of 200 mL hand rub in an open room of 37 m3 with a total contact time of 30 minutes.

Kramer et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:117   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-7-117

Open Data