Table 1

Persistence of clinically relevant bacteria on dry inanimate surfaces.

Type of bacterium

Duration of persistence (range)

Reference(s)


Acinetobacter spp.

3 days to 5 months

[18, 25, 28, 29, 87, 88]

Bordetella pertussis

3 – 5 days

[89, 90]

Campylobacter jejuni

up to 6 days

[91]

Clostridium difficile (spores)

5 months

[92–94]

Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. trachomatis

≤ 30 hours

[14, 95]

Chlamydia psittaci

15 days

[90]

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

7 days – 6 months

[90, 96]

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

1–8 days

[21]

Escherichia coli

1.5 hours – 16 months

[12, 16, 17, 22, 28, 52, 90, 97–99]

Enterococcus spp. including VRE and VSE

5 days – 4 months

[9, 26, 28, 100, 101]

Haemophilus influenzae

12 days

[90]

Helicobacter pylori

≤ 90 minutes

[23]

Klebsiella spp.

2 hours to > 30 months

[12, 16, 28, 52, 90]

Listeria spp.

1 day – months

[15, 90, 102]

Mycobacterium bovis

> 2 months

[13, 90]

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

1 day – 4 months

[30, 90]

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

1 – 3 days

[24, 27, 90]

Proteus vulgaris

1 – 2 days

[90]

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

6 hours – 16 months; on dry floor: 5 weeks

[12, 16, 28, 52, 99, 103, 104]

Salmonella typhi

6 hours – 4 weeks

[90]

Salmonella typhimurium

10 days – 4.2 years

[15, 90, 105]

Salmonella spp.

1 day

[52]

Serratia marcescens

3 days – 2 months; on dry floor: 5 weeks

[12, 90]

Shigella spp.

2 days – 5 months

[90, 106, 107]

Staphylococcus aureus, including MRSA

7 days – 7 months

[9, 10, 16, 52, 99, 108]

Streptococcus pneumoniae

1 – 20 days

[90]

Streptococcus pyogenes

3 days – 6.5 months

[90]

Vibrio cholerae

1 – 7 days

[90, 109]


Kramer et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2006 6:130   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-130

Open Data