Prevalence of human Salmonellosis in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia
BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:88 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-88Published: 19 February 2014
Human Salmonellosis is one of the major diseases in Ethiopia and several factors including under and mal-nutrition and HIV-AIDS may substantially contribute to its occurrence. Despite its importance, surveillance and monitoring systems are not in place and a comprehensive picture of its epidemiology is not available. The objectives of this study were to systematically review and estimate the prevalence of the disease and identify the dominant serogroups and serotypes in Ethiopia.
Published studies on Salmonellosis in Ethiopia were electronically and manually searched. Eligible studies were selected by using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Generic, methodological and statistical information were extracted from the eligible studies. The extracted data included sample sizes, the numbers of Salmonella positive samples, serogroups and serotypes. The variations in prevalence estimates attributable to heterogeneities were assessed and pooled prevalence was estimated by the random effects model.
Twenty studies carried out between 1974 and 2012 were eligible. The pooled prevalence estimates of Salmonella in stool samples of diarrheic children, diarrheic adults and carriers were 8.72%, 5.68%, and 1.08% respectively. Invasive infections in children (5.71%) and adults (0.76%) were significantly different (p < 0.001). Non-typhi isolates accounted for 57.9% of the isolates from patients. Serogroup D occurred more frequently than serogroups C and B. S. Concord, S. Typhi, S. Typhimurium and S. Paratyphi were dominant and accounted for 82.1% of the serotypes isolated from patients.
The prevalence of Salmonellosis is considerable and most infections are due to four serotypes. The results imply the need for a policy to promote public hygiene and regularly screen individuals in contact with food items for public consumption.