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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in the early detection of infection after elective colorectal surgery – a pilot study

Joana Silvestre12*, Jorge Rebanda3, Carlos Lourenço3 and Pedro Póvoa12

Author Affiliations

1 Polyvalent Intensive Care Unit, São Francisco Xavier Hospital, CHLO, Lisbon, Portugal

2 CEDOC, Faculty of Medical Sciences, New University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

3 Department of Surgery I, São Francisco Xavier Hospital, CHLO, Lisbon, Portugal

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:444  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-444

Published: 16 August 2014

Abstract

Background

Colorectal surgery is associated with postoperative infectious complications in up to 40% of cases, but the diagnosis of these complications is frequently misleading, delaying its resolution. Several biomarkers have been shown to be useful in infection diagnosis.

Methods

We conducted a single-centre, prospective, observational study segregating patients submitted to elective colorectal surgery with primary anastomosis, CRP and PCT were measured daily. We compared infected and non-infected patients.

Results

From October 2009 to June 2011, a total of 50 patients were included. Twenty-one patients developed infection. PCT and CRP before surgery were equally low in patients with or without postoperative infectious complications. After surgery, both PCT and CRP increased markedly. CRP time-course from the day of surgery onwards was significantly different in infected and non-infected patients (P = 0.001) whereas, PCT time-course was almost parallel in both groups (P = 0.866). Multiple comparisons between infected and non-infected patients from 5th to 9th postoperative days (POD) were performed and CRP concentration was significantly different (P < 0.01, Bonferroni correction), on the 6th, 7th and 8th POD. A CRP concentration > 5.0 mg/dl at the D6 was predictive of infection with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 62% (positive likelihood ratio 2.2, negative likelihood ratio 0.2).

Conclusions

After a major elective surgical insult both CRP and PCT serum levels increased independently of the presence of infection. Besides serum CRP time-course showed to be useful in the early detection of an infectious complication whereas PCT was unhelpful.

Keywords:
C-reactive protein; Procalcitonin; Biomarkers; Colorectal surgery; Surgical infections