Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

High frequency of kdr L1014F is associated with pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles coluzzii in Sudan savannah of northern Nigeria

Sulaiman S Ibrahim12*, Yayo A Manu1, Zainab Tukur1, Helen Irving2 and Charles S Wondji2*

Author Affiliations

1 Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria

2 Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, L3 5QA, Liverpool, UK

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:441  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-441

Published: 15 August 2014



Malaria burden is high in Nigeria, yet information on the major mosquito vectors is lacking especially in the Sudan savannah region of the country. In order to facilitate the design of future insecticide-based control interventions in the region, this study has established the resistance profile of An. gambiae s.l. populations in two northern Nigeria locations and assessed the contribution of target site resistance mutations.


Larval collection was conducted in two localities in Sudan savannah (Bunkure and Auyo) of northern Nigeria between 2009 and 2011, from which resulting adult, female mosquitoes were used for insecticides bioassays with deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, DDT and malathion. The mosquitoes were identified to species level and molecular forms and then genotyped for the presence of L1014F-kdr, L1014S-kdr and ace-1R mutations.


WHO bioassays revealed that An. gambiae s.l. from both localities were highly resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT, but only moderately resistant to deltamethrin. Full susceptibility was observed to malathion. An. gambiae, M form (now An. coluzzii), was predominant over An. arabiensis in Auyo and was more resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin than An. arabiensis. No ‘S’ form (An. gambiae s.s.) was detected. A high frequency of 1014 F mutation (80.1%) was found in An. coluzzii in contrast to An. arabiensis (13.5%). The presence of the 1014 F kdr allele was significantly associated with resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in An. coluzzii (OR = 9.85; P < 0.001) but not in An. arabiensis. The L1014S-kdr mutation was detected in a single An. arabiensis mosquito while no ace-1R mutation was found in any of the mosquitoes analysed.


The predominance of An. coluzzii and its resistance profile to main insecticides described in this study can guide the implementation of appropriate vector control interventions in this region of Nigeria where such information was previously lacking.

An. coluzzii; An. arabiensis; Nigeria; Savannah; Target-site mutations; kdr; Vector control