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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

A systematic review of the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Africa

Jong-Hoon Kim1, Kenrad E Nelson2, Ursula Panzner1, Yogita Kasture1, Alain B Labrique2 and Thomas F Wierzba1*

Author Affiliations

1 International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, San 4-8, Nakseongdae-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-919, South Korea

2 Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:308  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-308

Published: 5 June 2014

Abstract

Background

Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection is a newly recognized serious threat to global public health and Africa is suspected to be among the most severely affected regions in the world. Understanding HEV epidemiology in Africa will expedite the implementation of evidence-based control policies aimed at preventing the spread of HEV including policies for the use of available resources such as HEV vaccines.

Methods

Here we present a comprehensive review of HEV epidemiology in Africa based on published data. We searched for articles on HEV epidemiology in Africa from online databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science and critically reviewed appropriate publications to extract consistent findings, identify knowledge gaps, and suggest future studies.

Results

Taking a particularly high toll in pregnant women and their fetuses, HEV has infected human populations in 28 of 56 African countries. Since 1979, 17 HEV outbreaks have been reported about once every other year from Africa causing a reported 35,300 cases with 650 deaths.

Conclusions

In Africa, HEV infection is not new, is widespread, and the number of reported outbreaks are likely a significant underestimate. The authors suggest that this is a continent-wide public health problem that deserves the attention of local, regional and international agencies to implement control policies that can save numerous lives, especially those of pregnant women and their fetuses.

Keywords:
Hepatitis E; Africa; Review; Outbreak; Pregnancy