Table 2

The median responses of cytokines to M. tb PPD by timing of vaccination and population
Analyte (pg/mL) Malawi Malawi The Gambia UK Malawi
BCG between 3–11 weeksa BCG at 1 week BCG at 1 week BCG between 3–13 weeksa Early vs late BCG vaccination
n = 40 n = 30 n = 24 n = 28 Fold differenceb P valuec
Pro-inflammatory
IFN-γ 76 36.8 175.5 902 2.1 0.26
IL-2 1.6 4.2 1.6 10 0.4 <0.001
sIL-2R 1400 96.8 117.7 227 14.5 <0.001
IL-1α 1173 45.5 102.3 399 25.8 <0.001
IL-1β 17 22.1 36.7 27 0.8 0.61
IL-1ra 222 29.1 62.1 116 7.6 <0.001
IL-6 954 1149.1 2654.1 1881 0.8 0.069
TNF-α 139 81.3 87.5 111 1.7 0.030
TNF-β 4 1.6 7.7 14 2.5 0.19
IFN-α2 108 1.6 3.6 22 67.5 <0.001
Th2
IL-4 4 1.6 1.6 1.6 2.5 <0.001
IL-5 75 6.8 6.4 4 11.0 <0.001
IL-13 1434 41.6 19.4 47 34.5 <0.001
Th9
IL-9 10 1.6 1.6 1.6 6.3 <0.001
Th17
IL-17 60 7 5.4 26 8.6 <0.001
T cell regulation
IL-10 95 10.6 20 23 9.0 <0.001
T cell activation
IL-12p40 27.5 8.4 6.6 63 3.3 <0.001
IL-12p70 6 1.6 5.5 1.6 3.8 <0.001
Costimulation
sCD40L 186 30.8 18.6 153 6.0 <0.001
Chemokines
IP-10 3758 2517.2 1530.1 12798 1.5 0.006
MIP-1α 64 130.2 93 623 0.5 0.31
MIP-1β 709.5 348.3 300.5 961 2.0 0.019
MCP-1 15000 6381.3 1.6 9816 2.4 0.015
MCP-3 3065 2003 3242 860 1.5 0.004
MDC 2216 499.1 969.8 1415 4.4 <0.001
Gro 2725 2094 1646 936 1.3 0.11
RANTES 1093 330 1543 611 3.3 0.012
Eotaxin 33.5 46.1 33.4 29 0.7 0.001
Fractalkine 253.5 353.9 222.3 272 0.7 0.032
IL-8 14998 14549 8287 15892 1.0 <0.001
Growth factors
GCS-F 19.5 31 90.9 13 0.6 0.99
GM-CSF 717 117.5 127.6 376 6.1 <0.001
IL-3 49 1.6 1.6 1.6 30.6 <0.001
TGF-α 4.5 1.6 4.1 1.6 2.8 <0.001
FGF-2 111 21.1 35.6 99 5.3 <0.001
Flt-3 L 30.5 4.3 8 17 7.1 <0.001
IL-7 84.5 1.6 1.6 89 52.8 <0.001
EGF 14.5 14.5 11.1 16 1.0 0.99
VEGF 88.5 209.3 233.5 106 0.4 <0.001
PDGF-AA 506.5 179.2 112.4 108 2.8 <0.001
PDGF-AB/BB 381 305.2 801.5 106 1.2 0.92

The median values of most cytokines and chemokines were higher in the infants vaccinated late compared with the infants vaccinated in the first week after birth in Malawi. In contrast, infants vaccinated within 7 days of birth in Malawi and The Gambia showed comparable median responses to PPD in many of the cytokines, compared with the Malawian infants who were vaccinated late. IL-15 was not included due to the undetectable levels in all of the infant samples.

aThe data from the Malawian and UK infants vaccinated between 3–13 weeks of life were obtained from a previous study [18]. The median ages of late vaccinated Malawian and UK infants are 5 and 7 weeks, respectively.

bThe fold differences of each cytokine response to M. tb PPD were calculated by dividing the median values of the Malawian infants with delayed vaccination (between 3–11 weeks of life) by those of early vaccinated infants (within 1 week of life).

cP values for the median differences of each cytokine response to M. tb PPD between the two groups (Mann Whitney test).

Hur et al.

Hur et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:184   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-184

Open Data