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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Threat of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus to health in Nepal

Shamshul Ansari*, Hari Prasad Nepal, Rajendra Gautam, Nabin Rayamajhi, Sony Shrestha, Goma Upadhyay, Anju Acharya and Moti Lal Chapagain

Author Affiliations

Department of Microbiology, Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:157  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-157

Published: 22 March 2014

Abstract

Background

Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism from the different clinical samples in hospital. The emergence and dissemination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and growing resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics is making treatment of infections due to this organism increasingly difficult.

Methods

This study was conducted to determine the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples, rates of MRSA and full antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Clinical samples were cultured and Staphylococcus aureus was identified using standard microbiological methods recommended by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). Methicillin resistance was confirmed using cefoxitin and oxacillin disks. Inducible clindamycin resistance was identified using D-zone test.

Results

From the processed samples, 306 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were recovered. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Methicillin resistance was observed in 43.1% of isolates while inducible clindamycin resistance in 12.4% of the isolates.

Conclusions

The results of our study reveals that rates of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates is high. In particular, rate of methicillin resistance is alarming, prompting concern on the rational use of antibiotics and vigilant laboratory-based surveillance of resistance rates in Nepal.

Keywords:
Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; Inducible clindamycin resistance; Nepal