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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

Yohannes Zenebe*, Wondemagegn Mulu, Mulat Yimer and Bayeh Abera

Author Affiliations

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:118  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-118

Published: 1 March 2014

Abstract

Background

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the two most important agents of infectious diseases. Both HBV and HIV share common modes of transmission and have serious effects on both pregnant women and infants. In Bahir Dar city administration, there is a scarcity of information on sero-prevalence of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women. The main objective of this study was to assess sero-prevalence and risk factors of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 to April 2013. Socio-demographic and explanatory variables were collected using a structured questionnaire by face to face interview. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HIV infection was also detected using the national HIV test algorithms. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence intervals were calculated.

Results

A total of 318 pregnant women with the mean age of 25.72 (SD. ±5.14) years old were enrolled. Overall, 21/318 (6.6%) and 12 /318 (3.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for HIV and HBsAg, respectively. Of these, HIV/HBV co-infection rate was 4 (19.0%). Previous history of blood transfusion (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI, 9.02-14.84), body tattooing (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.24-26.50), history of surgery (AOR = 11.1, 95% CI, 2.64-46.88) and unsafe injection (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI, 1.44-22.19) were significantly associated with HBV infection. Previous history of piercing with sharp materials (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.17-7.80) and history of abortion (AOR = 6.6, 95% CI 2.50-17.71) were also statistically significant for HIV infection.

Conclusions

This study indicates that HIV and HBV infections are important public health issues in our region that need to be addressed. All pregnant women need to be screened for both HIV and HBV infections during antenatal care. Furthermore, health education about modes of transmission of HIV and HBV has to be given.

Keywords:
HBV; HIV; Pregnancy; Ethiopia