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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Microdistribution of the resistance of malaria vectors to deltamethrin in the region of Plateau (southeastern Benin) in preparation for an assessment of the impact of resistance on the effectiveness of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs)

Arthur Sovi1*, Innocent Djègbè2, Lawal Soumanou1, Filémon Tokponnon3, Virgile Gnanguenon1, Roseric Azondékon4, Frédéric Oké-Agbo1, Mariam Okè3, Alioun Adéchoubou3, Achille Massougbodji5, Vincent Corbel67 and Martin Akogbéto1

Author Affiliations

1 Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou, Cotonou, Benin

2 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Calavi, Bénin

3 Programme Nationale de Lutte contre le Paludisme, Cotonou, Benin

4 University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, USA

5 Faculté des Sciences de la Santé de l’Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin

6 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs, Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle (MIVEGEC, IRD 224-CNRS 5290 UM1-UM2), Montpellier, France

7 Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:103  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-103

Published: 25 February 2014

Abstract

Background

This study aims to research two areas, one with a resistant and the other with a susceptible profile of An. gambiae to deltamethrin in the region of Plateau (southern Benin). In each area, eight localities were sought. Both areas were needed for the assessment of the impact of malaria vector resistance to pyrethroids on the effectiveness of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs). The susceptible area of An. gambiae to deltamethrin was used as a control.

Methods

In total, 119 localities in the region of Plateau were screened by sampling An. gambiae s.l larvae. Female mosquitoes resulting from these larvae were exposed to 0.05% deltamethrin following WHO standards. PCR was used to identify species and molecular forms of the dead and alive mosquitoes. Finally, we identified kdr mutations (1014 F and1014S) using the HOLA technique.

Results

Fifty-six out of 119 prospected localities tested positive for Anopheles gambae s.l breeding sites. The results showed that An. gambiae was resistant to deltamethrin in 39 localities and susceptible in only 2 localities; resistance to deltamethrin was suspected in 15 localities. The HOLA technique confirmed the presence of kdr 1014 F mutation and the absence of kdr 1014S mutation. The kdr 1014 F mutation was found in both M and S molecular forms at relatively high frequencies therefore confirming the susceptibility tests.

Conclusion

We were unable to identify the eight susceptible areas due to the overall resistance of An. gambiae to deltamethrin in the region of Plateau. To implement the study, we kept two areas, one with high resistance (R+++) and the other with low resistance (R+) of An. gambiae to deltamethrin.

Keywords:
An. gambiae s.s; Deltamethrin; Insecticide resistance; kdr mutation; Plateau; Benin