Table 1

Risk factors for the occurrence of large outbreaks (≥ 7 patients) as determined by univariate analysis (more than one type may be affected)
Risk factor Risk factor present Risk factor lacking p-value
# LO # all NO % # LO # all NO %
departments (n=150)*
surgery 32 76 42.1 44 74 59.1 0.036
neonatology 24 41 58.5 52 109 47.7 0.274
gynecology 14 20 70.0 62 130 47.7 0.091
pediatrics 1 9 11.1 75 141 53.2 0.017
internal medicine 1 2 50.0 75 148 50.7 1.000
other 11 21 52.4 65 129 50.4 1.000
type of ward (n=150)*
operating theatre 26 63 41.3 50 87 57.5 0.068
peripheral ward 33 59 55.9 43 91 47.3 0.320
intensive care unit 17 28 60.7 59 122 48.4 0.296
outpatient clinic 4 9 44.4 72 141 51.1 0.744
age groups (n=147)*
neonates (≤ 1 m) 24 39 61.5 52 108 48.1 0.191
infants (1 m - 1 y) 3 6 50.0 73 141 51.8 1.000
children (> 1–12 y) 4 14 28.6 72 133 54.1 0.092
adolescents (13–17 y) 9 13 69.2 67 134 50.0 0.249
adults (18–69 y) 49 93 52.7 27 54 50.0 0.864
seniors (≥ 70 y) 13 26 50.0 63 121 52.1 1.000
microorganism (n=152)
bacteria 58 108 53.7 19 44 43.2 0.284
viruses 14 34 41.2 63 118 53.4 0.245
fungi 5 10 50.0 72 142 50.7 1.000
species (n=152)
S. aureus 26 49 53.1 51 103 49.5 0.730
hepatitis B virus 9 27 33.3 68 125 54.4 0.057
S. pyogenes 12 19 63.2 65 133 48.9 0.328
Candida spp. 5 8 62.5 72 144 50.0 0.719
P. aeruginosa 2 7 28.6 75 145 51.7 0.273
transmission (n=152)
contact 53 105 50.5 24 47 51.1 1.000
droplets 8 17 47.1 69 135 51.1 0.801
airborne 11 16 68.8 66 136 48.5 0.860
foodborne 3 6 50.0 74 146 50.7 1.000
unknown 3 13 23.1 74 139 53.2 0.045
HCW characteristics
colonization only 43 73 58.9 34 79 43.0 0.054
HWC infected 31 70 44.3 46 82 56.1 0.193
blood borne infection 9 27 33.3 68 125 54.4 0.057
aware of carrier status 3 14 21.4 62 118 52.5 0.045
proper HH compliance 12 21 57.1 9 16 56.3 1.000
work experience > 5 y 9 18 50.0 8 12 66.7 0.536

LO = large outbreak (≥ 7 patients affected); NO = nosocomial outbreak; HCW = health care worker; HH = hand hygiene; *more than one type may be affected.

Danzmann et al.

Danzmann et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:98   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-98

Open Data