Open Access Research article

Prevalence of enteroviruses in children with and without hand, foot, and mouth disease in China

Xiaoai Zhang2, Hongyu Wang12, Shujun Ding3, Xianjun Wang3, Xiaodan Chen2, Ying Wo2, Liyuan Wang12, Doudou Huang12, Wei Liu2* and Wuchun Cao2*

Author Affiliations

1 Graduate School of Anhui Medical University, 230032, Hefei, P. R. China

2 State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, 20 Dong-Da Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071, P. R. China

3 Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 250001, Jinan, P. R. China

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2013, 13:606  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-606

Published: 27 December 2013

Abstract

Background

To determine the prevalence of human enteroviruses (HEVs) among healthy children, their parents, and children with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD).

Methods

We conducted a case–control study that included throat samples from 579 children with HFMD and from 254 healthy controls. Throat samples from 49 households (98 parents and 53 healthy children) were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to study genetic relationships of EV71 strains.

Results

The HEV positive rate in HFMD patients was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (76.0% vs. 23.2%, P < 0.001). The EV71 (43.7% vs. 15.0%, P < 0.001), CVA16 (18.0% vs. 2.8%, P < 0.001), and CVA10 (5.7% vs. 0.8%, P = 0.001) serotypes were significantly overrepresented in HFMD patients in comparison to healthy children. Other HEV serotypes were detected with comparable frequency in cases and controls. The HEV positive rate in severe HFMD patients was significantly higher than that in mild group (82.1% vs. 73.8%, P = 0.04). The EV71 (55.0% vs. 39.7%, P = 0.001) and CVA16 (11. 9% vs. 20.0%, P = 0.024) positive rate differed significantly between severe and mild HFMD patients. Other HEV serotypes were detected with comparable frequency between severe and mild HFMD patients. Among 49 households, 22 households (44.9%) had at least 1 family member positive for HEV. Children had significantly higher HEV positive rate than adult (28.3% vs. 14.3%, P = 0.037). The HEV positive rate was similar between mothers and fathers (12.24% vs. 16.32%, P = 0.56). The VP1 sequences of EV71 from HFMD patients and healthy children were nearly identical and all were clustered in the same clade, C4a.

Conclusions

Our study demonstrated the co-circulation of multiple HEV serotypes in children with and without HFMD during epidemic. Our study deserves the attention on HFMD control.

Keywords:
Hand, foot, and mouth disease; Enterovirus; Epidemiology