Table 6

Logistic regression analysis of predictors of immunologic discordance (VL < 400 copies and CD4 change < 50 cells) compared to immuno-virologic success (VL <400 copies and CD4 change >=50 cells) at 12 month post-HAART among adult patients on ART in Nigeria
Characteristics
Immuno-virologic success (VL <400 copies and CD4 change >=50 cells) Immunologic discordance (VL <400 copies and CD4 change <50 cells) Unadjusted p-value Adjusted p-value
(n = 338) (n = 90) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Gender
Female 214 (63%) 55 (61.1%) Ref Ref
Male 124 (37%) 35 (38.9%) 1.09 (0.68-1.77) 0.90 1.88 (1.05-3.11) 0.04
Age at HAART Initiation (years)
< 30 269 (80%) 27 (30%) 1.67 (0.99-2.82) 0.05 1.76 (0.91-3.20) 0.08
>30 69 (20%) 63 (70%) Ref Ref
Currently married
Yes 188 (56%) 54 (60%) 1.19 (0.75-1.92) 0.46
No 150 (44%) 36 (40%) Ref
HIV disclosure
Yes 317 (93.8%) 86 (95.6%) 1.42 (0.48-4.26) 0.53
No 21 (6.2%) 4 (4.4%) Ref
Tuberculosis History
Yes 49 (14.5%) 5 (5.6%) 0.35 (0.13-0.90) 0.03 0.43 (0.21-1.09) 0.08
No 289 (85.5%) 85 (94.4%) Ref Ref
Baseline CD4 cell count (n = 613)
< 50 57 (16.9%) 3 (3.3%) Ref Ref
50 and < 200 196 (58%) 35 (38.9%) 3.39 (1.01-11.44) 0.049 3.17 (0.93-10.86) 0.07
200 and <350 72 (21.3%) 42 (46.7%) 11.08 (3.27-37.61) 0.001 9.90 (2.79-35.10) >0.001
350 and < 500 9 (2.7%) 6 (6.7%) 12.67 (2.68-59.92 0.001 13.5 (2.59-70.13) 0.002
>=500 4 (1.1%) 4 (4.4%) 18.99 (3.12-115.86 0.001 19.1 (2.91-125.59) 0.002
Baseline anemia (Hemoglobin < 10 g/dl) (n = 546)
Yes 103 (30.5%) 24 (26.7%) 1.21 (0.72-2.03) 0.48 1.04 (0.55-1.88) 0.94
No 235 (69.5%) 66 (73.3%) Ref Ref
Antiretroviral drug regimen at baseline
ZDV / 3TC / NVP or EFV 139 (41%) 39 (43.3%) Ref Ref
D4T / 3TC / NVP or EFV 24 (7%) 8 (8.9%) 1.18 (0.49-2.85) 0.70 1.74 (0.64-4.76) 0.25
TDF / 3TC of FTC / NVP or EFV 175 (52%) 43 (47.8%) 0.88 (0.54-1.43) 0.59 1.29 (0.72-2.22) 0.43
Drug adherence by pharmacy refill record
>= 95% 322 (95%) 85 (94.4%) Ref Ref
< 95% 16 (5%) 5 (5.6%) 1.18 (0.43-3.22) 0.75 1.20 (0.41-2.91) 0.64
Employment status
Employed 288 (85.2%) 74 (82.2%) Ref
Unemployed 46 (13.6%) 16 (17.8%) 1.35 (0.73-2.53) 0.34
Retired 1 (0.3%) 0 (0%) Omitted
Student 3 (0.9%) 0 (0%) Omitted
Highest educational achievement
No formal education 152 (45%) 41 (45.6%) Ref Ref
Primary education 84 (24.9%) 20 (22.2%) 0.88 (0.49-1.60) 0.68
Secondary education 14 (4.1%) 7 (7.8%) 1.85 (0.70-4.89) 0.21
Post-secondary / Tertiary / Advanced education 88 (26%) 22 (24.4%) 0.96 (0.54-1.72) 0.89
Socio-economic class
Class 1 14 (4.1%) 2 (2.2%) Ref
Class 2 54 (16%) 13 (14.5%) 1.69 (0.34-8.35) 0.52
Class 3 147 (43.5%) 48 (53.3%) 2.29 (0.50-10.40) 0.29
Class 4 110 (32.5%) 25 (27.8%) 1.59 (0.34-7.45) 0.56
Class 5 13 (3.9%) 2 (2.2%) 1.08 (0.13-8.79) 0.95
Current smoker
Yes 5 (1.5%) 2 (2.2%) 1.51 (0.29-7.93) 0.62
No 333 (98.5%) 88 (97.8%) Ref
Current alcohol user
Yes 28 (8.3%) 3 (3.3%) 0.38 (0.11-1.29) 0.12 0.28 (0.09-1.27) 0.09
No 310 (91.7%) 87 (96.7%) Ref Ref
Current herbal drug user
Yes 7 (2.1%) 3 (3.3%) 1.63 (0.41-6.44) 0.49
No 331 (97.9%) 87 (96.7%) Ref

Anude et al.

Anude et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:113   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-113

Open Data