Table 5

Logistic regression analysis of predictors of virologic discordance (VL > 400 copies and CD4 change >=50 cell) compared to immuno-virologic success (VL <400 copies and CD4 change >=50 cells) at 12 month post-HAART among adult patients on ART in Nigeria
Characteristics
Immuno-virologic success (VL <400 copies and CD4 change >=50 cells) Virologic discordance (VL >400 copies and CD4 change >=50 cells) Unadjusted p-value Adjusted p-value
(n = 338) (n = 94) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Gender
Female 214 (63%) 58 (62%) Ref Ref
Male 124 (37%) 36 (38%) 1.07 (0.67-1.72) 0.78 1.25 (0.72-2.01) 0.54
Age at HAART Initiation (years)
< 30 269 (80%) 66 (70%) 1.65 (0.99-2.77) 0.06 1.58 (0.88-3.01) 0.08
>30 69 (20%) 28 (30%) Ref Ref
Currently married
Yes 188 (56%) 57 (61%) 1.23 (0.77-1.96) 0.39
No 150 (44%) 37 (39%) Ref
HIV disclosure
Yes 317 (93.8%) 89 (95%) 1.18 (0.43-3.22) 0.75
No 21 (6.2%) 5 (5%) Ref
Tuberculosis History
Yes 49 (14.5%) 17 (18.1%) 1.30 (0.71-2.39) 0.39 0.92 (0.47-1.86) 0.92
No 289 (85.5%) 77 (81.9%) Ref Ref
Baseline CD4 cell count (n = 613)
< 50 57 (16.9%) 19 (20.2%) Ref Ref
50 and < 200 196 (58%) 59 (62.8%) 0.90 (0.50-1.64) 0.74 0.90 (0.56-1.61) 0.81
200 and <350 72 (21.3%) 13 (13.8%) 0.54 (0.25-1.19) 0.13 0.59 (0.20-1.38) 0.22
350 and < 500 9 (2.7%) 3 (3.2%) 1.00 (0.25-4.08) 1.0 0.58 (0.16-3.22) 0.65
>=500 4 (1.1%) 0 (0%) Omitted
Baseline anemia (Hemoglobin < 10 g/dl) (n = 546)
Yes 103 (30.5%) 40 (42.5%) 1.69 (1.05-2.70) 0.03 1.80 (1.13-2.85) 0.04
No 235 (69.5%) 54 (57.5%) Ref Ref
Antiretroviral drug regimen at baseline
ZDV / 3TC / NVP or EFV 139 (41%) 37 (39%) Ref Ref
D4T / 3TC / NVP or EFV 24 (7%) 9 (10%) 1.41 (0.60-3.29) 0.43 1.21 (0.42-3.95) 0.59
TDF / 3TC of FTC / NVP or EFV 175 (52%) 48 (51%) 1.03 (0.64-1.67) 0.90 0.89 (0.46-1.43) 0.86
Drug adherence by pharmacy refill record
>= 95% 322 (95%) 79 (84%) Ref Ref
< 95% 16 (5%) 15 (16%) 3.82 (1.81-8.06) 0.001 3.90 (1.92-8.24) 0.001
Employment status
Employed 288 (85.2%) 75 (79.8%) Ref Ref
Unemployed 46 (13.6%) 18 (19.1%) 1.50 (0.82-2.74) 0.18 1.44 (0.77-2.56) 0.31
Retired 1 (0.3%) 0 (0%) Omitted Omitted Omitted
Student 3 (0.9%) 1 (1.1%) 1.28 (0.13-12.5) 0.83 1.33 (0.15-11.7) 0.87
Highest educational achievement
No formal education 152 (45%) 58 (61.7%) Ref Ref
Primary education 84 (24.9%) 18 (19.2%) 0.56 (0.31-1.02) 0.06 0.56 (0.29-1.01) 0.06
Secondary education 14 (4.1%) 5 (5.3%) 0.94 (0.32-2.72) 0.90 0.92 (0.27-2.49) 0.72
Post-secondary / Tertiary / Advanced education 88 (26%) 13 (13.8%) 0.40 (0.21-0.77) 0.006 0.40 (0.22-0.68) 0.004
Socio-economic class
Class 1 14 (4.1%) 4 (4.3%) Ref
Class 2 54 (16%) 14 (14.9%) 0.91 (0.26-3.19) 0.88
Class 3 147 (43.5%) 33 (35.1%) 0.79 (0.24-2.54) 0.69
Class 4 110 (32.5%) 41 (43.6%) 1.30 (0.41-.4.19) 0.66
Class 5 13 (3.9%) 2 (2.1%) 0.54 (0.08-3.45) 0.51
Current smoker
Yes 5 (1.5%) 1 (98.9%) 0.72 (0.08-6.21) 0.76
No 333 (98.5%) 93 (1.1%) Ref
Current alcohol user
Yes 28 (8.3%) 8 (8.5%) 1.03 (0.45-2.34) 0.94
No 310 (91.7%) 86 (91.5%) Ref
Current herbal drug user
Yes 7 (2.1%) 3 (3.2%) 1.56 (0.39-6.15) 0.53
No 331 (97.9%) 91 (96.8%) Ref

Anude et al.

Anude et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:113   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-113

Open Data