Table 3

Logistic regression analysis of predictors for virologic failure (> 400 copies/ml) among Nigerian adult patients on ART
Characteristics
ALL Virologic failure Unadjusted p-value Adjusted p-value
(n = 591) (n = 138) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Gender
Female 374 87 (63%) Ref Ref 0.33
Male 217 51 (37%) 1.01 (0.68 – 1.5) 0.95 1.40 (0.72-2.07)
Age at HAART Initiation (years)
< 30 175 42 (30.4%) 1.51 (0.98-2.3) 0.06 1.79 (1.17-2.67) 0.03
>30 416 96 (69.6%) Ref Ref
Currently married
Yes 339 79 (43%) 0.99 (0.68-1.46) 0.98
No 252 59 (57%) Ref
Residential Distance (in kilometers)
< 50 372 90 (65%) Ref Ref
51 to100 80 10 (7%) 0.45 (0.22-0.92) 0.03 0.44 (0.22-0.84) 0.04
>100 143 38 (28%) 1.17 (0.73-1.87) 0.49 1.37 (0.91-2.35) 0.24
HIV disclosure
Yes 559 132 (96%) 0.75 (0.30-1.85) 0.53
No 32 6 (4%) Ref
Tuberculosis History
Yes 84 26 (19%) 1.58 (0.95-2.63) 0.08 1.20 (0.72-2.28) 0.46
No 507 112 (81%) Ref Ref
Baseline CD4 cell count (n = 613)
< 50 85 24 (17%) Ref Ref
50 and < 200 317 79 (57%) 0.84 (0.49-1.44) 0.54 0.82 (0.47-1.46) 0.53
200 and <350 143 26 (19%) 0.56 (0.30-1.07) 0.08 0.54 (0.22-0.93) 0.08
350 and < 500 22 5 (4%) 0.75 (0.25-2.25) 0.61 0.48 (0.17-2.53) 0.24
>=500 24 4 (3%) 0.51 (0.16-1.64) 0.26 0.58 (0.19-2.6) 0.38
Baseline anemia Hemoglobin < 10 g/dl) (n = 591)
Yes 200 58 (42%) 1.59 (1.07-2.35) 0.02 1.71 (1.22-2.61) 0.03
No 391 84 (58%) Ref Ref
Antiretroviral drug regimen at baseline
ZDV / 3TC / NVP or EFV 247 56 (40.6%) Ref Ref
D4T / 3TC / NVP or EFV 48 14 (10.1%) 1.32 (0.70-2.80) 0.34 1.35 (0.64-2.95) 0.45
TDF / 3TC of FTC / NVP or EFV 296 68 (50.3%) 0.94 (0.68-1.52) 0.93 0.90 (0.65-1.66) 0.79
Baseline Functionality
Working (70-100%) 460 96 (71.1%) Ref Ref
Ambulatory (50-70%) 106 34 (25.2% ) 0.32 (0.09-1.06) 0.062 0.34 (0.12-1.18) 0.09
Bedridden (<50%) 11 5 (3.7%) 0.57 (0.16-1.99) 0.375 0.60 (0.14-1.87) 0.39
Drug adherence by pharmacy refill record
>= 95% 543 114 (80%) Ref Ref
< 95% 48 24 (20%) 3.76 (2.06-6.87) 0.001 3.82 (2.17-5.97) 0.001
Employment status
Employed 496 111 (80%) Ref Ref
Unemployed 90 26 (19%) 1.41 (0.85-2.33) 0.18 1. 37 (0.88-2.10) 0.26
Retired 1 0 (0%) Omitted Omitted Omitted
Student 4 1 (1%) 1.16 (0.12-11.2) 0.90 1.18 (0.15-10.6) 0.94
Highest educational achievement
No formal education 283 80 (58%) Ref Ref
Primary education 131 26 (19%) 0.63 (0.38-1.04) 0.07 0.66 (0.39-1.07) 0.06
Secondary education 30 7 (5%) 0.77 (0.32-1.87) 0.57 0.74 (0.31-1.79) 0.61
Post-secondary / Tertiary / Advanced education (M.Sc, PhD) 147 25 (18%) 0.53 (0.32-0.88) 0.01 0.60 (0.30-0.86) 0.02
Socio-economic class
Class 1 23 6 (4%) Ref
Class 2 93 18 (13%) 0.68 (0.23-1.97) 0.48
Class 3 260 55 (40%) 0.76 (0.29-2.02) 0.58
Class 4 195 55 (40%) 1.11 (0.42-2.97) 0.83
Class 5 20 4 (3%) 0.71 (0.17-2.98) 0.64
Current smoker
Yes 10 3 (2%) 1.42 (0.36-5.55) 0.62
No 581 135 (98%) Ref
Current drug user
Yes 1 0 (0%) Omitted Omitted
No 590 138 (100%) Ref
Current alcohol user
Yes 47 14 (10%) 1.44 (0.75-2.77) 0.28
No 544 124 (90%) Ref
Current herbal drug user
Yes 17 6 (4%) 1.83 (0.66-5.03) 0.24
No 574 132 (96%) Ref

In the adjusted analysis, site was adjusted for in addition to the variables whose OR are included in the table.

Anude et al.

Anude et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:113   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-113

Open Data