Table 4

Evolving features and outcome of acute bacterial meningitis according to age group*
Group I (non-elderly) Group II (elderly) RR (95% CI) P value
N = 427 N = 208
Neurologic complications (%) 80 (18.7) 64 (30.8) 1.52 (1.21–1.90) 0.0009
New focal neurologic signs (%) 23 (5.4) 16 (7.7) 1.27 (0.86–1.89) 0.3372
Coma (%) 57 (13.3) 48 (23.1) 1.51 (1.18–1.94) 0.0028
Seizures (%) 46 (10.7) 33 (15.9) 1.33 (1.00–1.77) 0.0897
New cranial palsies (%) 17 (4.0) 17 (8.2) 1.57 (1.10–2.25) 0.0439
Extra-neurologic complications (%) 109 (25.5) 94 (45.2) 1.75 (1.41–2.18) < 0.0001
Septic shock (%) 65 (15.2) 35 (16.8) 1.08 (0.80–1.44) 0.7125
Acute respiratory failure (%) 60 (14.0) 46 (22.1) 1.42 (1.10–1.82) 0.0145
Acute renal failure (%) 40 (9.4) 48 (23.1) 1.86 (1.48–2.35) < 0.0001
Consumption coagulopathy (%) 39 (9.1) 15 (7.2) 0.84 (0.54–1.31) 0.5071
Therapeutics
Adequate empiric antibiotic therapy (%) 398 (93.2) 187 (89.9) 0.76 (0.54–1.08) 0.1956
Dexamethasone therapy (%) 142 (33.2) 83 (39.9) 1.21 (0.97–1.52) 0.1198
Vasoactive drugs (%) 69 (16.1) 38 (18.3) 1.10 (0.83–1.46) 0.5797
Mechanical ventilation (%) 67 (15.7) 39 (18.7) 1.15 (0.87–1.52) 0.3915
Dialysis (%) 9 (2.1) 8 (3.8) 1.45 (0.87–2.44) 0.3116
Outcome
Overall mortality rate (%) 50 (11.7) 62 (29.8) 1.98 (1.60–2.46) < 0.0001
Meningococcal (%) 8 (4.5) 3 (12.5) 2.49 (0.88–7.10) 0.2494
Pneumococcal (%) 14 (15.0) 19 (31.7) 1.68 (1.14–2.48) 0.0259
Listerial & grampositive bacilli (%) 7 (21.2) 9 (31.0) 1.29 (0.75–2.23) 0.5544
Other grampositive cocci (%) 9 (40.9) 6 (46.1) 1.14 (0.48–2.70) 0.9597
Gramnegative bacilli (%) 10 (55.5) 12 (57.1) 1.03 (0.57–1.86) 0.8225
Haemophilus influenzae (%) 1 (11.1) 0 (0.0) 1.50 (0.30–7.43) 0.7320
Mixed (%) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) ---- ----
Other 0 (0) 0 (0.0) ---- ----
Unknown etiology (%) 1 (1.4) 13 (24.1) 2.51 (1.89–3.34) 0.0002
Death attributable to meningitis (%) 42 (9.8) 43 (20.7) 1.67 (1.30–2.13) 0.0004
Post-meningitic sequelae(%) 42 (11.1) 21 (14.4) 1.22 (0.83–1.78) 0.3945

Values expressed as median and interquartile range unless otherwise specified. *A patient may have more than one complication or sequelae. Sequelae: total or partial deafness (19), limb palsy (18), cranial nerve palsy (13), memory disturbances (10), vegetative state (5), speech disturbances (4), polyneuritis (3), blindness (3), bilateral leg amputation (2), seizures (2), myoclonia (2), hydrocephalus (1), chronic leg ulcers (1), long-term tracheostomy (1), and chronic renal failure (1).

Domingo et al.

Domingo et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:108   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-108

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