Table 3

25 most prevalent comorbidities and symptoms in the overall HCV population stratified and compared by antiviral treatment status and control patients without HCV

Prevalence


Rank

Comorbidity

CCS code

Comorbidities

associated with HCV treatment and disease

No. of total HCV cases (n = 7411)

%

No. of HCV treated patients (n = 3469)

%

No. of HCV untreated patients (n = 3942)

%

No. of HCV uninfected controls (n = 7411)

%

Odds ratio (95%CI): treated vs untreated *

Odds ratio (95% CI): HCV cases vs. controls


1

Liver disease, othera

9.8.2

C

2779

37.5

1451

41.8

1328

33.7

221

3.0

1.34 (1.21-1.47)

19.67 (16.57-23.36)

2

Connective tissue disease, otherb

13.8

A, D

2776

37.5

1200

34.6

1576

40.0

2050

27.7

0.81 (0.74-0.90)

1.59 (1.48-1.70)

3

Abdominal pain

17.1.7

C

2675

36.1

1212

34.9

1463

37.1

1029

13.9

0.90 (0.81-0.99)

3.55 (3.25-3.87)

4

Upper respiratory disease, and other

8.1.5

A

2640

35.6

1204

34.7

1436

36.4

2194

29.6

0.96 (0.87-1.05)

1.33 (1.24-1.43)

5

Lower respiratory disease, and other unspecifiedc

8.8.3

2494

33.7

1197

34.5

1297

32.9

1332

18.0

1.06(0.96-1.17)

2.39 (2.21-2.59)

6

Essential hypertension

7.1.1

E

2416

32.6

1099

31.7

1317

33.4

1914

25.8

0.93 (0.84-1.03)

1.42 (1.32-1.53)

7

Back problems, and otherd

13.3.3

C

2409

32.5

1046

30.2

13.63

34.6

1502

20.3

0.84 (0.76-0.92)

1.90 (1.76-2.05)

8

Non-traumatic joint disorders, othere

13.2.3

C

2172

29.3

877

25.3

1295

32.9

1484

20.0

0.71 (0.64-0.78)

1.66 (1.53-1.79)

9

Skin disorders, otherf

12.4

A

2125

28.7

998

28.8

1127

28.6

1649

22.3

1.06 (0.95-1.17)

1.40 (1.30-1.51)

10

Nonspecific chest pain

7.2.5

A, C

1960

26.5

859

24.8

1101

27.9

1154

15.6

0.84 (0.76-0.94)

1.98 (1.82-2.15)

11

Disorders of lipid metabolism

3.6

C

1920

25.9

813

23.4

1107

28.1

2384

32.2

0.80 (0.72-0.89)

0.73 (0.68-0.79)

12

Malaise and fatigue

17.1.8

A

1887

25.5

933

26.9

954

24.2

866

11.7

1.18 (1.07-1.32)

2.62 (2.39-2.87)

13

Gastrointestinal disorders, other and unspecifiedg

9.12.3

C

1807

24.4

836

24.1

971

24.6

708

9.6

0.93 (0.84-1.04)

3.11 (2.81-3.43)

14

Benign neoplasm, other and unspecifiedh

2.16.2

Unk

1798

24.3

833

24.0

965

24.5

1333

18.0

1.00 (0.90-1.12)

1.48 (1.36-1.61)

15

Anemia deficiency, other

4.1.3

A

1648

22.2

983

28.3

665

16.9

441

6.0

1.99 (1.77-2.23)

4.57 (4.06-5.14)

16

Esophageal disordersi

9.4.1

E

1518

20.5

674

19.4

844

21.4

709

9.6

0.85 (0.76-0.96)

2.47 (2.24-2.73)

17

Upper respiratory disease, otherj

8.9

A, BP

1441

19.4

650

18.7

791

20.1

1098

14.8

0.95 (0.85-1.07)

1.39 (1.27-1.51)

18

Allergic reactionsk

17.1.9

A

1104

14.9

616

17.8

488

12.4

714

9.6

1.60 (1.41-1.83)

1.64 (1.48-1.81)

19

Genitourinary symptoms and ill-defined conditionsl

10.1.8

Unk

1098

14.8

483

13.9

615

15.6

677

9.1

0.89 (0.78-1.01)

1.73 (1.56-1.92)

20

Substance-related mental disorders

5.2.2

E

1091

14.7

443

12.8

648

16.4

818

3.2

1.07 (0.94-1.22

1.39 (1.26-1.53)

21

Blindness and vision defects

6.7.4

A

1078

14.6

512

14.8

566

14.4

818

11.0

1.07 (0.94-1.22)

1.80 (1.62-2.01)

22

Depressive disorder

5.9.2

A, B, D

1028

13.9

489

14.1

539

13.7

312

4.2

1.06(0.92-1.21)

3.72 (3.25-4.27)

23

Diabetes mellitus without complication

3.2

B

1025

13.8

426

12.3

599

15.2

627

8.5

0.74 (0.65-0.85)

1.80 (1.62-2.01)

24

Viral infections, otherm

1.3.3

Unk

1019

13.8

447

12.9

572

14.5

663

8.9

0.87 (0.76-0.99)

1.63 (1.47-1.81)

25

Eye disorders, othern

6.7.6

A

1001

13.5

499

14.4

502

12.7

758

10.2

1.23 (1.08-1.41)

1.38 (1.25-1.53)


CCS Clinical Classification Code

*Odds ratios are adjusted for age, sex, and advanced liver disease status

‡ Comorbidities associated with HCV treatment: (A) conditions associated with inteferon alfa or ribavirin use and (B) concurrent disease for which therapy is contraindicated; and HCV disease: (C) symptoms of HCV disease, (D) extrahepatic manifestations associated with HCV infection, and (E) conditions associated with disease progression; Unk, unknown

a Of the patients who had other liver diseases, they reported abnormal liver function (69.5%), elevated transaminase/lactate dehydrogenase (26.7%), abnormal serum enzyme levels (13.8%), ascites (10.7%), and hepatomegaly (9.0%)

b Of the patients who had other connective tissue disease, they mainly reported pain in limb (38.7%), myalgia and myositis unspecified (18.8%), swelling of limb (12.5%), and spasm of muscle (9.7%)

c Of the patients who had other and unspecified lower respiratory disease, they mainly reported coughs (48.5%), other respiratory abnormalities (35.6%), shortness of breath (34.1%), and other lung disease

e Of the patients who had other non-traumatic joint disorders, they mainly reported joint pain in the leg (25.5%), shoulder (24.1%), ankle (15.9%), and pelvis (14.4%)

f Of the patients who had other skin disorders, they mainly reported other nonspecified skin eruptions (22.3%), sebaceous cyst (14.3%), actinic keratosis (12.3%), and other seborrheic keratosis (10.8%)

g Of the patients who had other unspecified gastrointestinal disorders, they mainly reported diarrhea (26.7%), splenomegaly (20.3%), irritable bowel syndrome (11.9%), and unspecified site of abdominal/pelvic swelling (10.6%)

h Of the patients who had other unspecified benign neoplasm, they mainly reported benign neoplasm of the large bowel (39.2%), skin trunk (14.3%), and unspecified skin (11.5%)

i Of the patients who had esophageal disorders, they mainly reported esophageal reflux (62.6%), reflux esophagitis (21.1%), esophagitis unsepcified (14.5%), and esophageal varices without bleeding (13.7%)

j Of the patients who had other upper respiratory disease, they mainly reported unspecified allergic rhinitis (43.0%), rhinitis due to pollen (13.6%), chronic rhinitis (12.4%), nasal cavity/other sinus disorder (12.2%), epistaxis (11.1%), and deviated nasal septum (11.0%)

k Of the patients who had allergic reactions, they mainly reported unspecified dermatitis (65.9%) and other atopic dermatitis (11.1%)

l Of the patients who had genitourinary symptoms and ill-defined conditions, they mainly reported hematuria (32.0%), urinary frequency (20.1%), and dysuria (18.9%)

m Of the patients who had other viral infections, they mainly reported unspecified viral infections (42.8%), unspecified viral warts (22.0%), and unspecified herpes simplex (11.4%)

n Of the patients who had other eye disorders, they mainly reported unspecified tear film insufficiency (19.7%), other vitreous opacities (15.9%), and vitreous degeneration (9.5%)

o Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be misclassified under lower respiratory disease which is a antiviral treatment contraindication [14]

p Upper respiratory disease, comprising mainly of rhinitis, may reflect an under-diagnosis of thyorid disorders, which is known to be associated with HCV [15].

Louie et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:86   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-86

Open Data