Table 1

A summary of characteristics of included studies
Author Method Participants and settings Interventions/control
Kreiss 1992 [15] Unblinded RCT 138 female sex workers Nairobi, Kenya 1000 mg N-9 sponge/placebo
Richardson 2001 [19] Double blind RCT 278 female sex workers, Mombasa, Kenya 52.5 mg N-9 gel/placebo
Roddy 1998 [17] Double blind RCT 1292 female sex workers, Cameroon 70 mg N-9 film/placebo
Roddy 2002 [16] Unblinded RCT 1251 women (non sex workers) from clinics or pharmacy, Cameroon 100 mg N-9 gel/No intervention
Van Damme 2002 [18] Triple blind RCT 892 women sex workers from Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, South Africa, Thailand 52.5 mg N-9/placebo
Halpern 2008 [21] Double blind RCT 1644 women from bars, market, other common gathering areas, Lagos and Port Harcourt, Nigeria 6% CS gel/placebo
Van Damme 2008 [24] Double blind RCT 1428 women, South Africa, Uganda, Benin and India (Chennai, Bangalore) 6% CS gel/placebo
Felblum 2008 [20] Double blind RCT 2153 women from local market areas, bars hostels, military barracks and colleges, Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria 1.0% C31G (SAVVY) gel/placebo
Peterson 2007 [23] Double blind RCT 2142 women from high HIV transmission areas including markets, bars, hotels, Accra and Kumasi, Ghana 1% C31G (SAVVY) gel/placebo
Skoler-Karpoff 2008 [27] Double blind RCT 6,202 women from local health clinics, malls, churches, taxi ranks, other community venues, University of Cape Town, University of Limpopo-Medunsa campus Ga-Rankuwa and Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa Carraguard gel/placebo
Abdul Karim 2011 [26] RCT Double blind 3101 women in Malawi, South Africa, Zambia , Zimbawe, USA BufferGel/ 0.5% PRO2000/placebo
McCormack 2010 [22] RCT Double blind 6,651 women, three sites in South Africa; Mwanza, Tanzania; Entebbe, Uganda; Mazambuka, Zambia 0.5% PRO2000 gel/placebo
Abdul Karim 2010 [25] RCT Double blind 1085 at urban and rural clinic, Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa 1% tenofovir gel/placebo

CS, cellulose sulphate; N-9, nonoxynol-9; RCT, randomised controlled trials; USA, United States of America.

Obiero et al.

Obiero et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:289   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-289

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