Table 2

Multivariate random-effects logistic regression results
Stunting (<−2 SD LAZ) Underweight (<−2 SD WAZ) Wasting (<−2 SD WLZ)
Odds ratio (CI) P-value Odds ratio (CI) P-value Odds ratio (CI) P-value
Maternal Characteristics
Less than Primary Education 1.57 (1.11, 2.23) 0.012 1.20 (0.84, 1.73) 0.318 --
Housewife/Unemployed 0.79 (0.51, 1.23) 0.305 0.84 (0.53, 1.31) 0.433 --
Hemoglobin <9 g/dL 1.76 (1.14, 2.72) 0.011 1.31 (0.83, 2.06) 0.240 --
CD4 <250 2.03 (1.22, 3.38) 0.006 1.73 (1.03, 2.91) 0.038 --
log10 Viral Load 1.06 (0.86, 1.31) 0.606 1.16 (0.93, 1.46) 0.199 1.24 (1.02, 1.52) 0.034
Infant Characteristics
Male Gender 1.84 (1.30, 2.60) 0.001 --# --
SWEN 0.89 (0.63, 1.25) 0.498 0.76 (0.53, 1.08) 0.123 0.71 (0.51, 0.99) 0.046
HIV Status (Time Dependent) 2.33 (1.23, 4.43) 0.010 2.09 (1.15, 3.82) 0.016 1.24 (0.61, 2.52) 0.554
Not Breastfeeding (Time dependent) 1.31 (1.11, 1.55) 0.002 0.83 (0.69, 1.00) 0.047 0.86 (0.65, 1.14) 0.293
HIV Status * Not Breastfeeding Interaction 0.99 (0.48, 2.04) 0.985 1.83 (0.92, 3.65) 0.087 0.84 (0.33, 2.10) 0.708
Low Birth Weight (< 2.5 kg) 11.00 (6.82, 17.75) <0.0001 41.56 (26.04, 66.34) <0.0001 2.83 (1.87, 4.26) <0.0001
Gestational Age <37 weeks 1.79 (1.37, 5.71) 0.005 5.34 (2.69, 10.60) <0.0001 1.93 (1.13, 3.29) 0.015
Delivery mode other than normal vaginal 1.99 (1.30, 3.07) 0.002 2.63 (1.70, 4.07) <0.0001 1.92 (1.30, 2.84) 0.001
Hospitalization 1.24 (0.81, 1.89) 0.323 2.16 (1.40, 3.32) 0.001 1.62 (1.10, 2.38) 0.014

# Not included in the multivariate model.

Ram et al.

Ram et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:282   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-282

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