Table 1

Demographics of 191 immunosuppressed patients undergoing BAL for suspicion of Invasive fungal disease, classified according to the EORTC/NIAID
Patient characteristics All Possible Probable Proven No
Patient number (%) 191(100) 42(22) 8(4.2) 3(1.6) 138(72.3)
Age, yr 50.5(19–80) 44(22–80) 49.5(24–60) 42.67(29–70) 52.4(19–79)
Male gender (%) 116(60.7) 28(66.7) 4(50) 3(100) 81(58.7)
Symptoms
Fever (%) 95(49.7) 29(69) 3(37) 1(33.3) 62(44.9)
Cough (%) 97(50.8) 22(52.4) 4(50) 1(33.3) 70(50.7)
Dyspnea (%) 75(39.3) 15(35.7) 4(50) 0 56(40.6)
Sputum (%) 40(20.9) 10(23.8) 0 0 30(21.7)
Chills (%) 17(8.9) 1(2.4) 2(25) 0 14(10.1)
Chest radiograph/CT scan
Infiltrates (%) 105(55) 24(57.1) 6(75) 2(66.7) 73(52.9)
Suspicion of fungi lesion (%) 53(27.7) 17(40.5) 4(50) 3(100) 29(21)
Stem cell transplantation
Allogen (%) 48(25.1) 11(26.2) 4(100) 3(100) 30(21.7)
Autolog (%) 12(6.3) 6(14.3) 0 0 6(4.3)
Immunosuppressive therapy
Steroids (%) 67(35.1) 13(31) 2(25) 0 52(37.7)
Ciclosporine (%) 48(25.1) 13(31) 4(50) 1(33.3) 30(21.7)
Mycophenolate (%) 28(14.7) 4(9.5) 0 0 24(17.4)
Azathioprine (%) 9(4.7) 2(4.8) 1(12.5) 0 6(5.3)
Sirolimus (%) 10(5.2) 2(4.8) 1(12.5) 0 7(5.1)
Tacrolimus (%) 8(4.2) 0 0 0 8(5.8)
Antimicrobial therapy at bronchoscopy
Antibacterial (%) 163(85.3) 39(92.9) 8(100) 3(100) 113(81.3)
Antiviral (%) 66(34.6) 13(31) 3(37.5) 2(66.7) 48(34.8)
Antifungal (%) 111(58.1) 32(76.2) 7(87.5) 3(100) 69(50)
Disease
Hematologic disorders (%) 129(67.5) 33(78.6) 8(100) 3(100) 85(61.6)
Solid organ transplants (%) 26(13.6) 4(9.5) 0 0 22(15.9)
AIDS (%) 12(6.3) 0 0 0 12((8.7)
Autoimmune disorders (%) 24(12.6) 5(11.9) 0 0 19(13.8)
Microbiology
Aspergillus culture BAL (%) 8(4.2) 2(4.8) 2(25) 1(33.3) 3(2.2)
Bacteriology BAL (%) 28(14.7) 3(7.1) 1(12.5) 0 24(17.4)
Positive nPCR BAL (%) 55(28.8) 10(23.8) 4(50) 0 41(29.7)
Galactamannan in blood, ng/ml 0.226(0.1-3) 0.171(0.1-0.5) 0.488(0.1-1.3) 1.1(0.1-3) 0.178(0.1-1.3)
CRP (mg/L) 76.4(0–410) 84.8(0.9-296) 71.8(2.9-240) 61.6(6.8-116) 74(0–410)
Leukocytes (x103/L) 7.8 4.8 2.0 2.1 9.2
BAL cells (x106/L) 313.8 183.6 159.4 678.3 351.6
macrophages (in%) 69.1 71.0 82.4 60.5 68
lymphocytes (in%) 15.7 15.3 11.8 4.0 16.2
neutrophiles (in%) 16.4 9.4 6.7 35.5 18.5
eosinophiles (in%) 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.0 1

Abbreviations: BAL = Bronchoalveolar lavage.

Buess et al.

Buess et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:237   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-237

Open Data