HIV testing, HIV status and outcomes of treatment for tuberculosis in a major diagnosis and treatment centre in Yaounde, Cameroon: a retrospective cohort study
1 Department of Internal Medicine and Subspecialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon
2 Pneumology service, Yaounde Jamot Hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon
3 South African Medical Research Council & University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
4 Yaounde Jamot’s Hospital, P.O Box: 4021, Yaounde, Cameroun
BMC Infectious Diseases 2012, 12:190 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-190Published: 15 August 2012
Human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis are common and often co-occurring conditions in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We investigated the effects of HIV testing and HIV status on the outcomes of tuberculosis treatment in a major diagnosis and treatment centre in Yaounde, Cameroon.
Participants were 1647 adults with tuberculosis registered at the Yaounde Jamot’s Hospital between January and December 2009. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to relate HIV testing and HIV status to the outcomes of tuberculosis treatment during follow-up, with adjustment for potential covariates.
Mean age of participants was 35.5 years (standard deviation: 13.2) and 938 (57%) were men. Clinical forms of tuberculosis were: smear-positive (73.8%), smear-negative (9.4%) and extra-pulmonary (16.8%). Outcomes of tuberculosis treatment were: cure/completion (68.1%), failure (0.4%), default (20.1%), death (5.2%) and transfer (6.3%). Using cure/completion as reference, not testing for HIV was associated with adjusted odds ratio of 2.30 (95% confidence interval: 1.65-3.21), 2.26 (1.29-3.97) and 2.69 (1.62-4.46) for the risk of failure/default, death and transfer respectively. The equivalents for a positive test among those tested (1419 participants) were 1.19 (0.88-1.59), 6.35 (3.53-11.45) and 1.14 (0.69-1.86).
Non-consent for HIV testing in this setting is associated with all unfavourable outcomes of tuberculosis treatment. However been tested positive was the strongest predictor of fatal outcome. Efforts are needed both to improve acceptance of HIV testing among patients with tuberculosis and optimise the care of those tested positive.