Table 4

Multivariate analyses of the association between high- and low-risk human papillomavirus infections and selected subjects’ characteristics
Any HR HPV vs. negative (n = 3074) Only LR HPV vs. negative (n = 2628)
No. tested Adjusted model1 No. tested Adjusted model1
POR 95% CI POR 95% CI
Age group (years)
 18 302 2.3 1.3–4.1 234 0.7 0.2–2.3
 19 327 2.7 1.5–4.7 250 1.4 0.5–4.0
 20–21 440 2.6 1.5–4.5 333 0.9 0.3–2.6
 22–25 449 2.2 1.3–3.8 356 1.6 0.6–4.2
 26–35 312 1.3 0.7–2.3 272 0.7 0.2–2.3
 36–45 325 0.9 0.5–1.7 296 0.1 0.0–0.8
 46–55 474 0.8 0.4–1.4 456 1.1 0.4–2.8
 56–65 445 1 reference 431 1 reference
P-value for trend <0.001 0.8
Residential area
 Rural 324 1 reference 286 1 reference
 Suburban 383 1.3 0.8–2.1 332 1.5 0.5–4.7
 Urban 2362 1.5 1.0–2.2 2006 1.5 0.6–4.1
 Unknown 5 - - 4 - -
P-value for trend 0.03 0.4
Country of birth
 Spain 2811 1 reference 2436 1 reference
 Other countries 263 2.0 1.4–2.8 192 0.6 0.2–1.6
Marital status
 Married 1143 1 reference 1102 1 reference
 Single 1214 2.1 1.4–3.2 943 2.8 1.1–7.1
 Cohabiting 533 1.7 1.1–2.7 428 2.3 0.9–5.9
 Divorced/ Separated 125 2.7 1.5–4.7 101 0.8 0.2–3.6
 Widowed 59 4.0 1.7–9.3 54 3.4 0.9–13.1
Level of educational attainment
 No formal education 177 1 reference 152 1 reference
 Primary completed 640 0.9 0.5–1.5 564 2.2 0.3–18.5
 Secondary completed 1241 0.7 0.4–1.2 1041 5.6 0.7–42.4
 University or higher 1013 0.6 0.3–1.0 868 3.8 0.5–30.1
 Unknown 3 - - 3 - -
P-value for trend 0.003 0.2
Tobacco smoking status
 Never smoked 1566 1 reference 1405 1 reference
 Ex-smoker 426 0.9 0.6–1.3 395 1.4 0.7–2.8
 Current smoker 1081 1.6 1.3–2.1 827 1.2 0.7–2.0
 Unknown 1 - - 1 - -
P-value for trend <0.001 0.5
Ever use of condoms
 Never used 630 1 reference 585 1 reference
 Ex or current user 2444 0.9 0.7–1.3 2043 0.5 0.3–1.0
Systematic condom use in last 12  months*
 No 1902 1 reference 1633 1 reference
 Yes 1001 0.8 0.6–1.0 835 1.0 0.6–1.7
 Unknown 11 - - 12 - -
Lifetime number of sexual partners
 1 1534 1 reference 1447 1 reference
 2 564 1.6 1.2–2.2 487 1.2 0.6–2.4
 3 383 3.5 2.6–4.9 289 2.6 1.3–5.2
 ≥4 581 4.4 3.3–5.9 396 3.0 1.6–5.6
 Unknown 12 - - 9 - -
P-value for trend <0.001 <0.001
Age at first sexual intercourse (years)
 ≤14 121 0.7 0.3–1.8 88 0.2 0.0–1.2
 15–16 671 0.8 0.3–1.9 507 0.2 0.1–0.8
 17–18 1061 0.9 0.4–2.0 898 0.5 0.1–1.6
 19–20 481 1.0 0.4–2.5 434 0.5 0.1–1.8
 21–25 584 1.3 0.6–3.2 548 0.6 0.2–1.9
 ≥26 141 1 reference 138 1 reference
 Unknown 15 - - 15 - -
P-value for trend 0.02 0.01
Current partner circumcised
 No 2311 1 reference 1989 1 reference
 Yes 359 0.7 0.5–1.0 319 1.2 0.6–2.4
 Unknown 404 - - 320 - -
History of genital warts
 No 2991 1 reference 2576 1 reference
 Yes 78 2.9 1.7–4.9 46 6.6 2.8–15.4
 Unknown 5 - - 6 - -

HPV, human papillomavirus; HR, high-risk; LR, low-risk; POR, prevalence odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

1Adjusted model: adjusted for age, Autonomous Community, country of birth, marital status, level of education, smoking habits, lifetime number of sexual partners, and history of genital warts.

*Among women with a sexual partner in the last 12 months

Bold font indicates a significant effect (P < 0.05).

Roura et al.

Roura et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:145   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-145

Open Data