Table 1

Prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus infection and crude associations between infection and selected subjects’ characteristics
Variables No. of HPV- positive samples/ no. of tested samples HPV prevalence, % Basic model1
POR 95% CI
Age group (years)
 18 80/308 26.0 4.8 3.1–7.5
 19 101/339 29.8 5.7 3.7–8.8
 20–21 131/452 29.0 5.5 3.6–8.3
 22–25 137/471 29.1 5.5 3.6–8.2
 26–35 54/319 16.9 2.7 1.7–4.3
 36–45 31/326 9.5 1.4 0.8–2.3
 46–55 42/486 8.6 1.2 0.8–2.0
 56–65 32/454 7.0 1 reference
P-value for trend <0.001
Residential area
 Rural 48/329 14.6 1 reference
 Suburban 71/393 18.1 1.3 0.8–1.9
 Urban 488/2428 20.1 1.6 1.1–2.2
 Unknown 5 - - -
P-value for trend 0.005
Country of birth
 Spain 525/2886 18.2 1 reference
 Other countries 83/269 30.9 1.7 1.3–2.3
Marital status
 Single 361/1259 28.7 3.4 2.4–4.9
 Cohabiting 137/549 25.0 2.9 2.0–4.3
 Married 71/1158 6.1 1 reference
 Divorced/Separated 28/127 22.0 4.4 2.7–7.1
 Widowed 11/62 17.7 3.9 1.9–8.0
Level of educational attainment
 No formal education 27/178 15.2 1 reference
 Primary completed 92/648 14.2 0.9 0.5–1.4
 Secondary completed 290/1286 22.6 1.0 0.6–1.5
 University or higher 199/1040 19.1 0.7 0.5–1.2
 Unknown 3 - - -
P-value for trend 0.07
Tobacco smoking status
 Never smoked 227/1599 14.2 1 reference
 Ex-smoker 57/439 13.0 1.2 0.8–1.6
 Current smoker 324/1116 29.0 2.3 1.8–2.8
 Unknown 1 - - -
P-value for trend <0.001
Number of pregnancies
 0 330/1340 24.6 1 reference
 1 93/417 22.3 1.3 1.0–1.8
 2 62/587 10.6 1.0 0.7–1.4
 ≥3 43/511 8.4 0.8 0.5–1.3
 Unknown 300 - - -
P-value for trend among parous women 0.3
Use of oral contraceptives
 Never used 240/1299 18.5 1 reference
 Ex-user 192/1141 16.8 1.2 1.0–1.5
 Current user 176/712 24.7 1.0 0.8–1.2
 Unknown 3 - - -
Ever use of condoms
 Never used 85/650 13.1 1 reference
 Ex-user 162/1003 16.2 1.0 0.7–1.4
 Current user 361/1502 24.0 1.1 0.8–1.5
Systematic condom use in last 12 months*
 No 359/1947 18.4 1 reference
 Yes 226/1031 21.9 0.8 0.6–1.0
 Unknown 12 - - -
Lifetime number of sexual partners
 1 139/1560 8.9 1 reference
 2 103/577 17.9 1.8 1.4–2.4
 3 122/397 30.7 3.9 2.9–5.3
 ≥4 241/609 39.6 5.8 4.5–7.5
 Unknown 12 - - -
P-value for trend <0.001
Age at first sexual intercourse (years)
 ≤14 41/125 32.8 2.1 1.0–4.5
 15–16 192/685 28.0 1.6 0.8–3.1
 17–18 235/1097 21.4 1.3 0.7–2.5
 19–20 69/492 14.0 1.2 0.6–2.3
 21–25 58/595 9.7 1.1 0.6–2.2
 ≥26 11/145 7.6 1 reference
 Unknown 16 - - -
P-value for trend 0.006
Current partner had STIs in last 12 months
 No 538/2888 18.6 1 reference
 Yes 9/38 23.7 1.1 0.5–2.4
 Unknown 229 - - -
Current partner circumcised
 No 432/2366 18.3 1 reference
 Yes 60/369 16.3 0.9 0.6–1.2
 Unknown 420 - - -
Previous cervical lesions
 No 559/2952 18.9 1 reference
 Yes 36/178 20.2 1.7 1.1–2.5
 Unknown 25 - - -
History of genital warts
 No 555/3061 18.1 1 reference
 Yes 50/87 57.5 4.8 3.1–7.6
 Unknown 7 - - -
History of other STIs
 No 579/3054 19.0 1 reference
 Yes 23/87 26.4 1.7 1.0–2.8
 Unknown 14 - - -

HPV, human papillomavirus; POR, prevalence odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; STI, sexually transmitted infection.

1Basic model: adjusted for age and Autonomous Community.

*Among women with a sexual partner in the last 12 months.

Bold font indicates a significant effect (P < 0.05).

Roura et al.

Roura et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:145   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-145

Open Data