Table 1

Risk factors for pneumococcal disease in HIV patients

Risk Factor

IPD

Pneumococcal Pneumonia

All Pneumococcal Disease

n

n (%)

AOR (95% CI)

n (%)

AOR (95% CI)

n (%)

AOR (95% CI)





Gender

Female

418

10 (2.4)

2.2 (1.0-4.9)

10 (2.4)

3.4 (1.5-7.9)

16 (3.8)

2.6 (1.3-4.9)

Male

1528

22 (1.4)

1

18 (1.2)

1

34 (2.2)

1

Age

≥61

58

3 (5.2)

9.7 (1.7-53.8)

4 (6.9)

45.4 (4.6-445.0)

6 (10.3)

22.5 (5.0-100.7)

46-60

476

11 (2.3)

2.5 (0.7-9.5)

4 (0.8)

2.9 (0.3-26.7)

12 (2.5)

2.8 (0.8-10.5)

31-45

1070

15 (1.4)

1.5 (0.4-5.5)

19 (1.8)

6.4 (0.8-49.2)

29 (2.7)

3.2 (0.9-10.8)

≤30

342

3 (0.9)

1

1 (0.3)

1

3 (0.9)

1

Race

Aboriginal

233

13 (5.6)

3.0 (1.3-6.8)

7 (3.0)

1.5 (0.6-3.8)

16 (0.7)

2.1 (1.1-4.3)

Black

329

1 (0.3)

0.5 (0.1-3.9)

1 (0.3)

0.4 (0.0-3.7)

2 (0.6)

0.5 (0.1-2.3)

White

1225

18 (1.5)

1

19 (1.6)

1

31 (2.5)

1

Other

124

0

--

1 (0.8)

--

1 (0.8)

--

Unknown

35

0

--

0

--

0

--

Education

<High School

437

15 (3.4)

1.8 (0.8-3.9)

15 (3.4)

2.2 (1.0-4.8)

24 (5.5)

1.9 (1.0-3.5)

≥High School

1155

15 (1.3)

1

13 (1.1)

1

24 (2.1)

1

Unknown

354

2 (0.6)

--

0

--

2 (0.6)

--

IDU

Yes

231

13 (5.6)

3.3 (1.5-7.2)

7 (3.0)

1.4 (0.5-3.4)

17 (7.4)

2.5 (1.3-4.8)

No

1715

19 (1.1)

1

21 (1.2)

1

33 (1.9)

1

Smoker*

Yes

1042

28 (2.7)

4.9 (1.6-14.7)

26 (2.4)

13.8 (3.1-60.9)

44 (4.2)

6.2 (2.5-15.3)

No

902

4 (0.4)

1

2 (0.2)

1

6 (0.7)

1

Alcohol abuse†

Yes

266

7 (2.6)

1.4 (0.6-3.5)

7 (2.6)

1.6 (0.6-4.0)

11 (4.1)

1.4 (0.7-2.9)

No

1680

25 (1.5)

1

21 (1.3)

1

39 (2.3)

Nadir CD4/μL

≤200

875

27 (3.1)

5.1 (0.7-38.3)

22 (2.5)

1.5 (0.4-5.3)

41 (4.7)

2.8 (0.8-9.2)

201-500

836

4 (0.5)

1.0 (0.1-8.6)

3 (0.4)

0.2 (0.0-1.2)

6 (0.7)

0.5 (0.1-2.0)

>500

179

1 (0.6)

1

3 (1.7)

1

3 (1.7)

1

Not Available

56

0

--

0

--

0

--

Any co-trimoxazole use

Yes

656

21 (3.2)

1.4 (0.6-3.4)

18 (2.7)

1.8 (0.7-4.8)

33 (5.0)

1.7 (0.8-3.5)

No

1290

11 (0.9)

1

10 (0.8)

1

17 (1.3)

1

PPV-23 frequency

Never

429

9 (2.1)

1.7 (0.7-4.5)

2 (0.5)

0.3 (0.1-1.4)

10 (2.3)

1.0 (0.5-2.4)

< once per 5 years

472

12 (2.5)

2.3 (1.0-5.4)

12 (2.5)

1.8 (0.8-4.1)

20 (4.2)

2.1 (1.1-4.1)

≥ once per 5 years

1045

11 (1.1)

1

14 (1.3)

1

20 (1.9)

1

History of pulmonary MAC or PCP

Yes

243

8 (3.3)

1.5 (0.6-3.6)

6 (2.5)

1.2 (0.5-3.2)

11 (4.5)

1.2 (0.6-2.6)

No

1703

24 (1.4)

1

22 (1.3)

1

39 (2.3)

1

History of asthma

Yes

178

5 (2.8)

1.4 (0.5-4.0)

5 (2.8)

1.7 (0.6-4.8)

8 (4.5)

1.5 (0.7-3.5)

No

1768

27 (1.5)

1

23 (1.3)

1

42 (2.4)

1

History of COPD

Yes

60

4 (6.7)

1.3 (0.4-4.3)

6 (10.0)

3.8 (1.3-11.0)

9 (15.0)

2.7 (1.1-6.4)

No

1886

28 (1.5)

1

22 (1.2)

1

41 (2.2)

1

History of active TB

Yes

74

2 (2.7)

1.5 (0.3-6.8)

1 (1.4)

0.9 (0.1-7.0)

3 (4.1)

1.5 (0.4-5.3)

No

1872

30 (1.6)

1

27 (1.4)

1

47 (2.5)

1

Hepatitis C

Infected

448

22 (4.9)

5.0 (2.0-12.1)

16 (3.6)

3.1 (1.3-7.7)

31 (6.9)

3.9 (1.9-7.9)

Not Infected

1498

10 (0.7)

1

12 (0.8)

1

19 (1.3)

1


* Self-reported smoking for greater than one month

† >9 drinks/week for females, >14 drinks/week for males

AOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, Confidence Interval; IDU, injection drug use; PPV-23, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; MAC, Mycobacterium avium complex; PCP, Pneumocystis Jirovecii pneumonia; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; TB, tuberculosis

Variables are adjusted with logistic regression for gender, age group (≤30, 31-45, 46-60, or ≥61), a smoking history (if >1 month), IDU, and nadir CD4 cell count (≤200, 201-500, or >500/μL)

Siemieniuk et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:314   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-314

Open Data