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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Is public transport a risk factor for acute respiratory infection?

Joy Troko1, Puja Myles1, Jack Gibson1, Ahmed Hashim1, Joanne Enstone1, Susan Kingdon2, Christopher Packham23, Shahid Amin2, Andrew Hayward4 and Jonathan Nguyen Van-Tam1*

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Epidemiology & Public Health, University of Nottingham, Clinical Sciences Building, City Hospital, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK

2 St Luke's Surgery, Radford Health Centre, Ilkeston Road, Nottingham, NG7 3GW, UK

3 Public Health Directorate, Nottingham City Primary Care Trust, 1 Standard Court, Park Row, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG1 6GN, UK

4 Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill St, London, NW3 5PQ, UK

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2011, 11:16  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-16

Published: 14 January 2011



The relationship between public transport use and acquisition of acute respiratory infection (ARI) is not well understood but potentially important during epidemics and pandemics.


A case-control study performed during the 2008/09 influenza season. Cases (n = 72) consulted a General Practitioner with ARI, and controls with another non-respiratory acute condition (n = 66). Data were obtained on bus or tram usage in the five days preceding illness onset (cases) or the five days before consultation (controls) alongside demographic details. Multiple logistic regression modelling was used to investigate the association between bus or tram use and ARI, adjusting for potential confounders.


Recent bus or tram use within five days of symptom onset was associated with an almost six-fold increased risk of consulting for ARI (adjusted OR = 5.94 95% CI 1.33-26.5). The risk of ARI appeared to be modified according to the degree of habitual bus and tram use, but this was not statistically significant (1-3 times/week: adjusted OR = 0.54 (95% CI 0.15-1.95; >3 times/week: 0.37 (95% CI 0.13-1.06).


We found a statistically significant association between ARI and bus or tram use in the five days before symptom onset. The risk appeared greatest among occasional bus or tram users, but this trend was not statistically significant. However, these data are plausible in relation to the greater likelihood of developing protective antibodies to common respiratory viruses if repeatedly exposed. The findings have differing implications for the control of seasonal acute respiratory infections and for pandemic influenza.